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ANSI/CEA709 (EN14908) Standards August 2006. Vijay Dhingra. 04H1122. Background. Data networks interconnect computers, servers, and printers Control networks connect sensors, actuators, displays, and other machines to each other, to remote monitoring sites, and to the Internet

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Ansi cea709 en14908 standards august 2006 l.jpg

ANSI/CEA709 (EN14908) Standards August 2006

Vijay Dhingra

04H1122


Background l.jpg
Background

  • Data networks interconnect computers, servers, and printers

  • Control networks connect sensors, actuators, displays, and other machines to each other, to remote monitoring sites, and to the Internet

    • All control networks perform a common set of functions: they sense, process, actuate, and communicate

Internet


Control network technology requirements l.jpg
Control Network Technology Requirements

  • Robust, reliable communications

    • Peer-to-peer protocol supports multiple media, efficient addressing and authentication

    • No single point of failure in the control system

    • Predictable, autonomous applications regardless of network traffic

  • Open standards based and Interoperable products

  • Large Ecosystem of cost effective solution

    • Best of breed products in commercial and home market

  • Confidence and leverage in a future proof environment


Multiple media support l.jpg
Multiple Media Support

  • Control applications require flexibility in selecting communication medium

    • Protocol and routing technology that allows multiple media (Mixed as needed within system):

      • Power line

      • Twisted pair

      • Fiber optic

      • RF

      • Coaxial cable

      • Infrared

      • IP

  • Interface with other home networking standards/protocols

    • With simple application layer bridging


L on w orks control networks l.jpg
LONWORKSControl Networks

  • Flat Peer-Peer Network Architecture

    • Eliminate complex cabling

    • Lower installation and maintenance costs

    • Eliminate proprietary & closed gateways, and central controllers

    • Simplify HMI development

  • Open

    • Choose interoperable components from multiple vendors


Ansi cea 709 1 b control networking protocol l.jpg

ANSI/CEA-709.1-BControl Networking Protocol


Ansi cea 709 1 b protocol l.jpg
ANSI/CEA-709.1-B Protocol

  • An open standard protocol for control applications

    • Control applications have different requirements than data applications

    • TCP/IP is an example of a data networking protocol

    • Reference document available from Global Engineering

  • Protocol implementations are available from multiple vendors

    • Protocol can be ported to any processor

    • Echelon’s implementation is called the LonTalk® protocol

    • Echelon’s Neuron® firmware includes the LonTalk protocol

    • Echelon development systems include a royalty-free unlimited license to use the Neuron firmware implementation


Ansi cea 709 1 protocol layers l.jpg
ANSI/CEA-709.1 Protocol Layers

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

  • ANSI/CEA-709.1 is layered

    • As recommended by the International Standards Organization Open Systems Interconnect (ISO OSI) reference model

    • OSI layers ensure that the required services are provided without unexpected interactions between the services

    • Device manufacturers only need to change the application

Physical Media



A typical ansi cea 709 1 packet l.jpg
A Typical ANSI/CEA-709.1 Packet

Layer 2

Header

Layer 3

Address Information

Layer 4

Service Type

Layer 5/ 6

Header

DATA

Layer 2

CRC

2 Bytes

Unsigned

Long

2 Bytes

Network

Variable

Selector

2 Bytes

Service Type ID

Transaction Num

1 Byte

Addr Format, Domain Length

Source Addr (Subnet/Node)

Dest Addr (Group)

Domain ID (Zero Len Domain)

1 Byte

2 Bytes

1 Byte

0 Bytes

Backlog

Priority

Alt Path

1 Byte

12 Bytes


Layer 1 physical layer l.jpg
Layer 1—Physical Layer

  • Electrical interconnect

    • Transmission of raw bits over a communication channel


Physical layer common channel types l.jpg
Physical Layer—Common Channel Types

  • Optimize cost and performance for a broad range of control applications


Typical channel capacities l.jpg

PL-20x

TP/FT-10

TP/XF-1250

IP-852

Typical Channel Capacities

  • PL-20x Channels

    • PL-20N ~20 packets/sec

    • PL-20C ~18 packets/sec

    • PL-20A ~11packets/sec

  • TP/FT-10 Channel

    • Peak: ~225 packets/sec

    • Sustained: ~180 packets/sec

  • TP/XF-1250 Channel

    • Peak: ~720 packets/sec

    • Sustained: ~576 packets/sec

  • IP-852 Channels

    • ~10,000 packets/sec

    • Supports aggregation


Physical layer tp ft 10 channel l.jpg
Physical Layer—TP/FT-10 Channel

  • Defined by ANSI/CEA-709.3-A Free-Topology Twisted Pair Channel Specification

  • Media is free topology twisted pair with optional link power

    • Supports commonly available unshielded and shielded 0.50mm (24AWG) to 1.3mm (16AWG) twisted pair wires

    • Polarity insensitive wiring

    • Reduces installation and maintenance costs

  • Up to 64 devices on a single network segment

    • Or 128 devices along with a link power source

  • Available in cost-effective device-on-a-chip

    • With all-in-one transceiver, application processor, and memory


Physical layer pl 20 channel l.jpg

A-Band

86kHz

75kHz

Physical Layer—PL-20 Channel

  • Advanced technology for reliable communication

    • Dual carrier frequency operation

    • Digital signal processing

  • Worldwide operation

    • Meets FCC, Industry Canada, Japan MPT, and European CENELEC EN50065-1 regulations regulations

    • ANSI/CEA-709.2 compliant

  • European utility support

    • Dual frequency DSP performance in the A-Band for AMR/DSM applications

  • Available in cost-effective device-on-a-chip

    • Transceiver, application processor, memory

  • Proven technology

    • Millions of devices installed worldwide

C-Band

132kHz

115kHz


Layer 2 link layer l.jpg
Layer 2—Link Layer

  • Media access and framing

    • Ensures efficient use of a single communications channel

    • Raw bits of the physical layer are broken up into data frames

    • Link layer defines when a device can transmit a data frame

    • Also defines how destination devices receive the data frames and detect transmission errors

  • Features

    • CRC error checking

    • Media access—predictive p-persistent CSMA

    • Priority

    • Collision avoidance


Link layer media access l.jpg

Busy Channel Packet Cycle

Packet

Packet

Non-priority Slots

Link Layer—Media Access

  • Predictive p-persistent CSMA

  • Channel access is always randomized over time slots

  • Number of time slots are varied based on collision avoidance algorithm

    • 16 to 1008 slots


Link layer media access priority l.jpg

Busy Channel Packet Cycle

1

2

3

...

n

Packet

Packet

Priority Slots

Non-priority Slots

Link Layer—Media Access Priority

  • Configurable priority messages

    • Reserved time slot

    • Reduces overall channel bandwidth

  • Priority slot number is assigned at installation time

  • No collisions possible during priority portion of packet cycle following preceding packet

  • Highest priority message has predictable response time


Link layer media access benefits l.jpg
Link Layer—Media Access Benefits

  • Linear response time over 99% of channel bandwidth

    • Critical for open media such as power line

  • Remove and attach devices without halting communications

  • Predictable performance for high-priority messages


Link layer 709 1 mac vs ethernet l.jpg
Link Layer—709.1 MAC vs. Ethernet

from: Computer Networks, Andrew S. Tanenbaum, Fourth Edition, 2003.


Layer 3 network layer l.jpg
Layer 3—Network Layer

  • Message delivery

    • How data frames are routed from a source device to one or more destination devices

  • Physical address

    • 48-bit Neuron ID—used for initial configuration

  • Logical addresses

    • Domain Identifies subsystem on open media or large system

    • Subnet Subset of a domain typically associated with a channel

    • Node Identifies device within subnet

    • Group Additional device identifiers independent of subnet

1

SUBNET 1

127

1

SUBNET 2

127

127

1

SUBNET 3

GROUP 1

1

SUBNET 4

127

1

127

SUBNET 255

DOMAIN (32,385 Devices)


Network layer addressing modes l.jpg
Network Layer—Addressing Modes

  • Optimize bandwidth with multiple addressing modes

  • Application communications only requires 3- or 4-byte network addresses

  • Send messages to many devices using only a single 3-byte network address


Network layer capacity l.jpg
Network Layer—Capacity

Room to grow from a few devices to millions

  • 18,446,744,073,726,329,086 domains

  • 255 subnets per domain

  • 127 devices per subnet

  • 32,385 devices per domain

  • 256 groups per domain

  • 64 devices per acknowledged group

  • 32,385 devices per unacknowledged group


Network layer routers l.jpg
Network Layer—Routers

Domain

Subnet 1

Subnet 1

Subnet 2

...

  • Extend channel segments

  • Improve reliability

  • Increase overall bandwidth

  • Simplify network configuration

    • Routers are transparent to devices and applications

Channel

Router

Router

Repeater

Group 1

Subnet 5

Subnet 3

Router

Group 1

Repeater

Group 2

Subnet 4


Layer 4 transport layer l.jpg

R

R

R

Layer 4—Transport Layer

  • End-to-end reliability—allows reliable delivery of message packets

  • Three message delivery services

    • Acknowledged

      • Sending device requires acknowledgment from all receiving devices

      • All acknowledgments are end-to-end

      • Automatic retries if acknowledgement not received

    • Repeated

      • Configurable number of messages per transaction

      • Conserves bandwidth with large groups

      • Better response time

      • Three repeats provides > 99.999% probability of delivery

    • Unacknowledged

      • One message per transaction

      • Conserves network bandwidth and provides highest performance

  • Duplicate detection prevents repeated messages to the application

R

S

Acknowledged - Unicast

S

R

Acknowledged - Multicast

R

S

Repeated- Unicast or Multicast

R

S

Unacknowledged - Unicast or Multicast


Layer 5 session layer l.jpg

R

R

R

Layer 5—Session Layer

  • Adds control to the data exchanged by the lower layers

  • Request/response service

    • Used for device management, fetching values, and requesting other remote actions

  • Authentication

    • Verifies identity of message sender…

R

S

S

R


Session layer authentication l.jpg
Session Layer—Authentication

Sender

Authenticated Message

Receiver

  • Verifies identity of message sender

  • Uses a 48-bit secret key known by each device

  • Sender must provide correct reply to 64-bit random challenge from the receiver

64 bit Random Challenge

Key used to transform challenge

Key used to compare response to value transformed locally.

Challenge Response

Acknowledgment


Layer 6 presentation layer l.jpg

Room Temp

Temp

Set Point

Temp Sensor

(Made in USA)

Boiler System

(Made in Europe)

23

Set Point

Setpoint Display

(Made in Korea)

Layer 6—Presentation Layer

  • Data exchanged using network variables

    • Propagation automatically handled by Neuron firmware

    • Provides fastest and most compact code

  • Devices from different manufacturers can exchange data with a common interpretation


Presentation layer connections l.jpg

Alarm

Presentation Layer—Connections

  • Sensors “publish” information, and actuators “subscribe” to information

  • Devices are logically connected

  • Connections do not affect device applications

Feedback

Room Occupied

Motion

Brightness

Motion Detector

Lamp

0% - 100%

Key Code

Control Knob

Intruder

Arm / Disarm

Key Pad

Alarm Bell


Presentation layer standard types l.jpg
Presentation Layer—Standard Types

  • Standard network variable types

    • Over 170 standard types defined at types.LONMARK.org

    • XML definitions available for easy input/translation/interpretation by other systems


Presentation layer standard formatting l.jpg
Presentation Layer—Standard Formatting

  • Ensures consistent data presentation in tools and HMIs

  • Example

    • A SNVT_temp_p value of 2940 is displayed as follows:

29.4 degrees C

84.9 degrees F

52.9 degrees F


Layer 7 application layer l.jpg
Layer 7—Application Layer

  • Defines standard network services that use data exchanged by the lower layers

    • Network configuration and diagnostics

    • File transfer

    • Application configuration, diagnostics, management, and specification

    • Standard profiles

      • Alarming

      • Data logging

      • Scheduling

      • More than 60 others


Application layer application configuration l.jpg
Application Layer—Application Configuration

  • Configuration properties characterize the behavior of a device in the system

    • Types define data encoding, scaling, units, default value, range, and behavior

    • Standard configuration property types defined at types.LONMARK.org

    • XML definitions available for easy input/translation/interpretation by other systems


Application layer application specification l.jpg

Node Object

Mandatory Network Variables

nviRequest

nvoStatus

nv1

nv2

SNVT_obj_request

SNVT_obj_status

Optional Network Variables

nvoAlarm2

nviTimeSet

nv10

nv3

SNVT_alarm_2

SNVT_time_stamp

nvoAlarm

nv4

SNVT_alarm

nviDateEvent

nvoDateResync

nv9

nv11

SNVT_date_event

SNVT_switch

nviFileReq

nvoFileStat

nv5

nv6

SNVT_file_req

SNVT_file_status

nvoFileDirectory

nviFilePos

nv8

nv7

SNVT_address

SNVT_file_pos

nvoLogStat

nviLogReq

nv13

nv12

SNVT_log_status

SNVT_log_req

Configuration Properties

Mandatory

Optional

Device Major Version

Device Minor Version

Functional Block Major Version

Functional Block Minor Version

Location

Maximum Status Send Time

Minimum Send Time (Send Throttle)

Network Configuration Source

Application Layer—Application Specification

  • Functional block

    • Portion of a device’s application that performs a task

    • Receives configuration and operational data inputs

    • Processes the data

    • Sends operational data outputs



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