Animal Agriculture InThe Coming DecadeBalancing social pressures in wealthy countries with increasing global demand for meat protein
Three Major US Drivers • Anthropomorphism/Animal Rights • Affluence • Agriculture Alienation
April 2004, Delta SKY Magazine “My fur-babies are an integral part of my daily life. I’m told we even look alike…They sense my moods, never judge, know when to play and when to comfort me…”
Entities Enacting Guardianship • Wanaque, NJ ,May 2004 • Woodstock, NY, February 2004 • San Francisco, CA, January 2003 • Amherst, MA, April 2002 • Menomonee Falls, WI, March 2002 • Sherwood, AR, September 2001 • West Hollywood, CA, February 2001 • Berkeley, CA, February 2001 • Boulder, CO, July 2000 • State of Rhode Island, July 2001
States Considering Non-Economic Damages – Wrongful Injury/Death • Legislation Introduced: • California • Connecticut • Maryland • New York • New Jersey • Massachusetts • Minnesota • Mississippi • Rhode Island • Tennessee
McDonald’s Five Drivers • Democratized Luxury • More consumers can afford items formerly considered luxuries • Authenticity • Consumers desire fresh unprocessed or minimally processed foods • Wellness • Demand is rising for food products that promote healthier lifestyles • Time Constraints • Americans are working longer hours, both mom and dad • Technology • Consumers are growing more accustomed to new technology and to more sophisticated levels of it
Share of personal consumption expenditures spent on food consumed at home by selected countries
The Consumer Dynamic • American’s spend such a small percentage of their income on food that they can demand food – • Where they want it • When they want it • In the portion they want it • Prepared in the manner of preference • Produced in a socially responsible manner as defined by the individual consumer
The Result? • A market opportunity, not a regulatory requirement. • Companies and producers respond by filling niche markets. • Organic, antibiotic free, family farmed, free range, welfare friendly, etc. • Regulatory role is to ensure safety and access to markets for both producers and consumers. • Market role is to respond quickly and effectively to rapidly changing consumer dynamics.
Attitude Statement Agreement % Agree Strongly or Somewhat • Respondents strongly believe that their choices shouldn’t be dictated to by activists – very few support animals having the same rights as humans. Consumers should have the right to choose what they eat and not be dictated to by a small minority of activists While it is important to be concerned about how farm animals are raised, there is nothing wrong with raising animals solely for food purposes It is only a small minority of farmers and ranchers who fail to take proper care of their animals’ well being Farmers and ranchers treat their animals well routinely Animals have the same rights as human beings % % % Q: Please tell me how much you agree with each of the following statements. (SHOW STATEMENTS) Would you say you…? Base: Total Sample (n=1002)
Willingness to Pay More For ‘Humanely Raised’ Food Cumulative Percentage • Three in ten are willing to pay 5% more, only one in ten 20% more. % Cumulative willingness to pay more Premium Level Q: Would you be willing to pay ___ more for food that is labeled ‘humanely raised’? Base: Total Sample (n=1002)
Advocate Believability–Food Quality and Safety Top Two Box % A family physician • A family physician and a dietician are the most believable advocates for food quality and safety. A dietician The Food and Drug Administration The US Department of Agriculture Physicians Committee on Responsible Medicine An FDA representative A USDA representative American Dairy Association The Center for Science and the Public Interest An agricultural extension agent The National Cattleman’s Beef Association A farmer or rancher Consumer Advocate Groups % % Q:Now please think about various people and organizations in the U.S. that occasionally speak publicly and/or issue public statements concerning THE TREATMENT OF FARM ANIMALS ON FARMS AND RANCHES AND IN FOOD PROCESSING. How believable would you view each of the following types of individuals or groups using a scale from 1 to 7 where 1 means not believable at all and 7 means extremely believable? How believable would you consider…? Base: Total Sample (n=1002)
Advocate Believability – Food Quality and Safety (cont’d) Top Two Box % • A politician and a well-known Hollywood actor or actress are the least believable advocates for food quality and safety. The National Pork Board The United Egg Producers A beef, pork, poultry, or dairy food processor The Animal Agriculture Alliance A restaurant representative An environmental activist An animal rights activist A grocery store representative A well-known Hollywood actor or actress A politician % % Q:Now please think about various people and organizations in the U.S. that occasionally speak publicly and/or issue public statements concerning THE TREATMENT OF FARM ANIMALS ON FARMS AND RANCHES AND IN FOOD PROCESSING. How believable would you view each of the following types of individuals or groups using a scale from 1 to 7 where 1 means not believable at all and 7 means extremely believable? How believable would you consider…? Base: Total Sample (n=1002)
Influence of Animal Rights Groups • The activities of animal rights groups have little influence on respondents food choices. Q:. How influential are the activities and/or advertisements of animal rights groups on your decisions about what products to buy? Would you say…? Base: Total Sample (n=1002)
Increased Global Demand • From 2002 – 2025, a 25% increase in population, 1.6 billion more mouths to feed. • If per capita meat consumption were constant we would see a 25% increase in demand. • Per capita incomes are projected to rise, fueling an increase in meat consumption.
21% reduction 2002-25 Area per capita for all grains, oilseeds, fiber crops, pulses, tubers, fruits, vegetables and tree crops.
Perspective • Today each person eats from the products of about .234 hectares. • By 2025 that shrinks to .186 hectares. • To avoid converting wetlands and grasslands into production, we must significantly increase yields beyond historical trends.
How can we produce 366 million additional metric tons of meat in 2025? • Significantly increase the per hectare yields of grains and oilseeds. • Continue to improve feed efficiency. • Reduce wastage, particularly harvest and post harvest losses of grains and oilseeds. • Find effective, cost efficient ways to meet environmental and animal welfare requirements. • Continue to invest in and embrace technology.
The political challenge Quoting from the IPC animal agriculture task force proposal… “The problem is that scientific assessments can only take one so far. At some stage an informed judgment will be necessary and that is where the arguments begin.”
The task ahead • 1.6 billion new people by 2025 • Dramatic increased pressure for meat production • Must be accomplished while meeting increased environmental and animal welfare requirements • We need the stability of a science based approach to facilitate investment and trade, balanced with support for global sustainability.