acute abdomen abdominal trauma n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Acute Abdomen & Abdominal Trauma PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Acute Abdomen & Abdominal Trauma

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 46

Acute Abdomen & Abdominal Trauma - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 168 Views
  • Uploaded on

Acute Abdomen & Abdominal Trauma. Abdominal Pain . Common What is causing it? Life-threatening?. Acute Abdomen. Sudden onset of abdominal pain Indicates peritoneal irritation. Anatomy. Gastrointestinal System Look it Up! Renal or Urinary System Reproductive System Male Female.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Acute Abdomen & Abdominal Trauma' - elina


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
abdominal pain
Abdominal Pain
  • Common
  • What is causing it?
  • Life-threatening?
acute abdomen

Acute Abdomen

Sudden onset of abdominal pain

Indicates peritoneal irritation

anatomy
Anatomy
  • Gastrointestinal System Look it Up!
  • Renal or Urinary System
  • Reproductive System
    • Male
    • Female
the abdomen 1 of 2
The Abdomen (1 of 2)
  • The abdomen is the second major body cavity.
  • It contains the major organs of digestion and excretion.
description of abdominal pain
Description of Abdominal Pain
  • Local
  • General or diffuse
  • Referred
  • Colic
gi bleeding
GI Bleeding
  • Pain
  • “heartburn”
  • Signs of shock
  • And the following types of bleeding
bright red rectal bleeding
Bright red rectal bleeding
  • indicates bleed close to anus.
    • obvious sign ( not subtle )
    • minor bleeds usually hemorrhoid
melena
Melena
  • Dark, tar-like stools
  • Lower GI bleed

Can be only indication of GI bleed

can represent significant blood loss

coffee ground emesis
Coffee ground emesis
  • Partially digested blood
    • chronic
    • stomach or duodenum
bright red emesis
Bright red emesis
  • upper Gi bleed
  • above stomach
    • Think Esophageal varices
    • Can be severe
gi complaints

GI complaints

Common signs & symptoms

hemorrhoid
Hemorrhoid
  • Enlarged blood vessels near the anus.
    • Rectal pain
    • bleeding
ulcer
Ulcer
  • Erosion of the stomach or intestinal lining.
    • Epigastric or abdominal pain
    • Hematemesis – blood in emesis
        • Bright red
        • Coffe ground
hernia
Hernia
  • Protrusion of tissue through body wall
    • pain
    • red or blue skin discoloration
    • incarcerated
    • can be serious medical emergency
esophageal varices
Esophageal Varices
  • enlarged blood vessels in the esophagus that can rupture
    • massive bright red bleeding (oral)
    • Shock
      • Hx of liver disease or ETOH abuse
bowel obstruction
Bowel Obstruction
  • A blockage of the bowel lumen prohibiting the passage of material
    • Hx of recent abdominal surgery
    • constipation
    • colicky abdominal pain
    • abdominal distention
    • Nausea/Vomiting
appendicitis
Appendicitis
  • Inflammation of the appendix
      • fever
      • anorexia
      • N/V
      • RLQ pain
      • Rebound tenderness
cholecystitis
Cholecystitis
  • Inflammation of the gallbladder
    • Gallstones?
    • recent ingestion of fatty food?
    • RUQ pain
    • gradual onset
    • not colicky pain
kidney stones
Kidney Stones
  • Calculi in the kidney
    • severe flank pain
    • maybe colicky
    • restlessness
    • nausea & vomiting
urinary tract infection uti
Urinary Tract Infection (UTI)
  • Bacterial infection in the urinary tract
    • Lower abdominal pain
    • Pain and/or burning with urination
    • Hematuria
    • Urgency and frequency
pyelonephritis
Pyelonephritis
  • Inflammation of the kidney
    • Flank pain
    • Pain and/or burning with urination
    • Hematuria
    • Fever
pelvic inflammatory disease
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease
  • The inflammation of the female pelvic organs (STD)
      • Dull RLQ or LLQ pain
      • abnormal vaginal discharge
      • nausea & vomiting
      • fever
ectopic pregnancy
Ectopic Pregnancy
  • Embryo gestation outside uterus (usually fallopian tube)
      • RLQ or LLQ pain
      • late LMP
      • may have vaginal bleeding
      • shock
peritonitis
Peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum

Generalized abdominal pain

Fever

Rigid abdomen

Nausea and/or vomiting

Distention

dissecting abdominal aortic aneurysm
Dissecting Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm
  • Aneurysm develops between arterial layers
      • shearing/tearing abdominal pain
      • sudden onset
      • shock
      • unequal femoral pulses
assessment
Assessment
  • OPQRST - all pain is not the same
  • SAMPLE or HAM
    • nausea, vomiting, diarrhea
    • anorexia
    • fever
    • weakness or syncope
the physical exam
The physical exam
  • observe for distention
  • palpate for TRPGR
  • check all 4 quadrants
  • start away from pain
females
Females
  • Always consider a gynecological problem with women having abdominal pain
    • Pregnant?
    • LMP
    • Normal?
    • Prior gynecological problems
treatment
Treatment
  • oxygen
  • position of comfort
  • no oral fluids
  • monitor vitals carefully
  • transport
  • treat for shock PRN
notes
Notes
  • Dialysis
  • shunts / fistulas
  • kidneys role in homeostasis
  • digestive “juices” = hydrochloric acid
notes1
Notes
  • nasogastric tubes (NG tubes)
  • gastrointestinal tube (GI tubes)
  • colostomy / illeostomy
abdominal trauma

Abdominal Trauma

Penetrating & Blunt

abdominal anatomy
Abdominal Anatomy
  • look it up in your text book
  • Hollow organs
  • Solid organs
solid organs
Solid organs
  • Liver
  • Spleen
  • Kidneys
  • Pancreas
hollow organs
Hollow Organs
  • Stomach
  • Intestines
  • Bladder
which quadrant is it in
Which quadrant is it in?
  • stomach
  • liver
  • spleen
  • intestine
which quadrant is it in1
Which quadrant is it in?
  • kidney
  • bladder
  • appendix
injuries of the abdomen
Injuries of the Abdomen
  • Closed injury (blunt)
  • Open injury (penetrating)
signs symptoms
Signs & Symptoms
  • Mechanism
  • Pain - pain upon palpation
  • Tachycardia
  • Shock
  • Bruising
  • Distended or rigid abdomen
  • Nausea & vomiting
the physical exam1
The Physical Exam
  • Determine type of injury
  • Observe for distention
  • Palpate (TRPGR)
  • Check all 4 quadrants
  • Start away from pain
treatment of all abdominal injuries
Treatment of all abdominal injuries
  • High flow O2
  • Keep airway clear
  • Treat for shock prn
  • No oral fluids
  • Rapid transport
  • Supine / shock
care for penetrating injuries
Care for Penetrating Injuries
  • Check for exit wounds.
  • Dry sterile dressing
  • Bulky dressing for impaled object
abdominal evisceration
Abdominal Evisceration
  • Internal organs or fat protrude through the open wound.
  • Never try to replace organs.
  • Cover with moist gauze, then sterile dressing.
  • Keep organs warm and moist.
  • Transport promptly.