Year 10 Science 2011 SPORT PSYCHOLOGY FORENSIC PSYCHOLOGY Psychology
Sport Psychology • What do Sport Psychologists do? • Help athletes to enjoy and perform at their best in training and competition • Develop programs to maximise the well being of athletes • Research athletes’ attitudes towards performance enhancing techniques & methods of training eg: visualisation
Objectives • To understand the role of a sports psychologist and the areas they work in. • To be able to define motivation and explain both intrinsic and extrinsic motivation • To be able to know and contrast tangible intangible rewards • Explain how athletes use mental imagery in competition and for motivation • The roles of focus and flow in Sports Psychology • The role of a Forensic Psychologist • To understand the role of Criminal Profiling and the BEA method
How do I become a sports Psychologist? Step 1: A person must complete a 4 year degree majoring in Psychology Step 2: Complete a Masters or supervised by a registered Psychlogist for 2 years.
MOTIVATION • Is an internal force that “ADS” Activates Directs & Sustains behaviour towards acheiving a goal A goal is something that an individual wants to achieve. In order for goal setting to be effective research has found that the following elements need to be incorporated: “SMART” – useful acronym Specific rather than general Measurable – the goal must be something that can be checked & measured Action – oriented – the athlete must understand what needs to be done Realistic – the goal must be possible The goal should be completed in a specific timeframe Complete: Activity 4.1 page 73 V
MOTIVATION MOTIVATION EXTRINSIC INTRINSIC • When the incentive is based on someone or something else • Eg: - external rewards (goals), - relationship with team mates or coach • Tangible (trophies, money, medals etc) • Intangible (prestige, praise, parents) • CompleteActivity 4.2 & 4.3 pages 76 & 77. • When the incentive is based on the individual. • Eg: Love or desire to succeed. Fun, excitement and satisfaction from competing.
Complete assessment task: Activity 4.2 – Motivation & sporting performance Some possible ideas for research include: • High profile Athletes who have been successful in: Tennis Sailing Soccer AFL Athletics Car Racing, Golf, Rugby Rowing Basketball, Cricket, Boxing, Snowboarding Skiing Distance Running Swimming
Activities to complete: • Motivation & Sporting Performance 4.2 p76. • Intrinsic & Extrinsic Motivation 4.3 p77. • Personal Motivating Profile 4.4 p78 • Motivation 4.5 p78
Mental skills for peak performance: • Mental Imagery: • Also called visualisation • Should be as vivid as possible to be effective • Should be used forpositive outcomes • We often use it without realising • Can be used for motivation or calming • Smell, touch, taste & body position can be combined with visual information to create realistic images • Complete: Activity 8.1 p 117 – 118 with a partner • Complete: Activity 8.2 in a small group
Sport Psychology - focus & flow Focus is : • also known as concentration • complete attention to the execution of a skill • the ability to block out all other distractions Why do atheletes find that they lose focus the better they become at their sport? Flowis : • the successful & automatic execution of a skill without being negatively influenced by competing distractions, stressors & mood. - being in complete control of actions & reactions - Being fully focused on the activity & Not evaulating the quality of the execution of skills during performance.
Distractions - External & Internal Complete Activity 8.4 page 125 -126 & write a report
Chapter 5: Goal Setting • Read the story of shark attack on Bethany Hamilton on pg 80-81. • Watch this youtube clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkuk-NPIpzMomplete or DVD: Heart of a Surfer • Activity 5.1- Heart of a Soul Surfer
Chapter 5: Types of Goals • Short Term Goals-are the goals a person wants to achieve in a relatively short period of time. • Long Term Goals- are the goals a person wants to achieve over a long period of time. • Long term goals are more likely to be achieved when they are broken down into a succession of short term goals....like stepping stones.
Chapter 5: Goal Setting- A Step-by- Step Approach • Goal Setting- The process of setting specific, measureable and time-targeted targets or objectives. (SMART). • Setting goals and having something to work towards, helps you stay motivated and can provide necessary incentive. Bethany didn’t focus on winning a world surfing championship...she focused on getting back in the water, then back on her board until eventually she was ready to compete again
CHAPTER 5: TIPS FOR GOAL SETTING • Achievable • Action-Oriented • Measureable • Time-Bound • Written Down & Displayed • Owned
CHAPTER 6: SELF-CONFIDENCE & SPORTING PERFORMANCE • Self Confidence- a person’s belief in themselves and their abilities. • Athletes with a low level of self-confidence tend to be negative about themselves and perform poorly.
CHAPTER 6: Improving an athlete’s self confidence • Watch this short YOUTUBE clip on Confidence http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d_FWTqjld48 • Complete • Activity 6.2 With Compliments pg 97 • Activity 6.3 Personal Self Confidence pg 98 • Activity 6.4 Self Confidence pg 98 • Project: The Champion’s Creed (refer to handout)
Forensic Psychology: - Combines an understanding of the legal & criminal justice system & how people interact with the legal system. • A Forensic Psychologist may work in the civil & criminal sectors of the Australian legal system • They are experts on legal issues that affect people • Civil areas a forensic psychologist works in include: - child custody & divorce counselling - personal injury suits - fradulant or false advertising - sexual harrassment cases • Criminal areas a forensic psychologist works in include: - psychological assessment, behaviours & profiling of offenders (eg: stalkers) - victims’ behaviour, stress and trauma - insanity defences - jury decision making
Student Activities: • Complete: Activity 12.1 Crime Scene Investigators p 195- 196 • Complete: Activity 12.2 What is Forensic Science p 198 Stalkers & Stalking • Stalking: - was officially recognised as a crime in all states & territories of Australia between 1993 – 1995 - is one of the newest categories of crime - is repeated & persistent harassment where a person imposes on another person with unwanted or unwelcome communications or contact - communications can be made by: email, telephone calls, text messages, letters and graffiti
When is it stalking? • The Victorian law states that a person is guilty of stalking if he or she engages in actions with the: - intention of causing physical or mental harm to the victim. - intention of causing fear or apprehension for the victims safetyor their loved ones Some actions defined as Stalking: • Making any contact with the other person (sending letters, emails etc) • Loitering near, watching or entering a place where the other person lives, works or visits. • -tracing the victims use of the internet, email or other electronic communication • See box 13.1 – Cyberstalking page 202 – 203 • Complete Activity 3.1 in small groups – present to the class for 2 minutes.
Types of Stalkers: • Statistics indicate that 87.7% of stalkers are men and that 82.4% of their victims are women. • Forensic Psychologists have developed a system for classifying stalkers into types. Common types are: • Rejected stalker • Erotomanic stalker • Intimacy –seeking stalker • Predatory stalker • Incompetent suitor • Resentful stalker see p 204 – 206 for details on each of these
Why is “classifying” stalkers useful to forensic Psychologists? • It helps to guide their treatment strategies as research has shown that different types of stalkers require different treaments in order to effectively stope their behaviour • Class activity: Read box 13.4 page 209 • Complete the Class Debate Activity 13.2 • Complete the research activity Using the worksheet • Complete Activity 14.1 using worksheet
CHAPTER 16: DANGEROUSNESS- PSYCHOPATHS • Psychopathy was, until 1980, the term used for a personality disorder characterized by an abnormal lack of empathy combined with strongly amoral conduct but masked by an ability to appear outwardly normal. • The publication of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders third edition (DSM-III) changed the name of this mental disorder to Antisocial Personality Disorder. Ted Bundy
psychopaths • It is estimated that up to 2% of the population are ‘psychopaths’. • Psychopaths can blend in, undetected, in a variety of surroundings, including corporate environments and even schools!!
psychopaths • It is a misconception that all psychopaths are violent criminals with the majority living and working amongst us psychologically destroying people. • You may encounter such people in your adult life so you should be aware of their characteristics.
How to spot a workplace psychopath • Single/unmarried-inability to form close relationships. • Come across as very confident, smooth talkers. • Perfect candidates for leadership roles. • Build alliances with senior managers to ensure they remained undetected at best or would be defended at worst. • Criticise ‘victim’ to colleagues and those higher up in the organisation so that by the time this person complains, management already have a bad impression of them. The victim tends to be labelled as the problem.” • Read page 251-252 • Complete Handout: Psychopaths
Dangerousness • Watch this clip on Daniel Valeriohttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k_KvkjJuQzA • Read this article on the early release of his killer. http://www.heraldsun.com.au/opinion/releasing-daniels-killer-was-right-decision/story-e6frfhqf-1225988527378 • Complete the Handout on Dangerousness after reading pg244-254 of your text.
-sometimes called “ offender profiling” • it is used by forensic psychologists (profilers) to narrow down suspects • A profiler develops a report that summarises the traits of a criminal offender. This report is known as a criminal profile • A criminal profile contains: • - An offenders personality, age, sex, weight, height, ethnic background, martial status, clothing etc. Criminal Profiling
Criminal Profiling cont’ • Offender signature - pattern of behaviour that are characteristic of the offenders needs. 2 parts to an offenders signature: - signature aspect: pattern of distinctive behaviour that are characteristic of and satisfy the offender. - signature behaviours: acts committed by an offender that are not necessary to complete the crime but which the offender must do to satisfy themselves
Criminal profiling method – Behavioural evidence analysis ( BEA) • this method of profiling involves 5 steps. STEP 1 – Analysis of Evidence • Collecting, arranging and assessing all evidence related to the case. (eg: fibres, paint chips, blood, photos, videos, DNA etc) STEP 2 – Analysis of the victims characteristics • Personality, age, how, why and when the victim was chosen. STEP 3 – Analysis of the Crime Scene Characteristics • Determining where the crime occurred & number of crime scenes STEP 4 – Develop a Criminal Profile • Physiological & Psychological characteristics of the offender is prepared using the information in steps 1 – 3. STEP 5 – Apprehension - If a suspect is identified – he or she is interviewed. If the investigators have reason to beleive the suspect is the offender then a warrant is obtained for the suspects arrest. This is followed by a trial with the expert witnesses including the forensic psychologist.
Criminal profiling & Serial murder Criminal Profiling is used in the cases of serial murder A serial murderer: someone who has murdered on at least three occasions (J Douglas) According to Australian Statistics from (NHMP): From July 1989 – June 2006 – there were 11 groupings of serial murders, committed by 13 known offenders with 52 victims. Holmes DeBurger identified 4 types of Serial Murderers: • Visionary • Mission – Oriented • Hedonistic • Power/ control Read pages 222 – 225 & complete activity 14.2 Criminal Profiling & Serial Murder Questions 1 – 6
The forensic Psychologist in the courtroom A forensic Psychologist may act as an expert witness to: • Assess the defendant’s fitness to stand trial and plea guilty or not gulity • Assess an offenders risk of dangerousness • Give evidence & eyewitness memory to support the cases
Criminal responsibility - Determining whether at the time of the offence the person had the mental intention to commit the criminal act. In order to find someone guilty of a crime two elements must be proven: • Actus reus – means the criminal act or physical part of the offence • Mens rea – refers to the suspects “state of mind” or the mental part of the offence (whether they knew right • from wrong at the time of the offence).
Criminal responsibility CONT” In a court of law it may be argued that the defendant lacked mens rea due to: AUTOMATISM – not conscious of what they were doing, they may have been sufferiing from a disorder (eg fuge amnesia), sleepwalking, or another condition THEIR AGE – children are responsible for their actions after the age of 10 in Australia. Under this age they cannot be charged with a criminal offence unless the prosecution can prove they had mens rea beyond reasonable doubt. “ see boy 7 goes on croc feeding rampage” page 233 DIMINISHED RESPONSIBILITY - this defence is ONLY available in relation to charges of murder, the person may then be found guilty of manslaughter. See BOX 15.1 PAGE 232
Two melbourne boys on trial for Manslaugther - 1994 • Read pages 235 – 237 • Watch DVD“ FAST LANE”
Eyewitness memory • Complete Activity 17.1 page 256 - watch first 11 min of “The Fugitive” Eyewitness – someone who has had firsthand knowledge about an event or crime through their senses. Eyewitness testimony – the verbal or written statement the person gives about what they remember about the specific event or crime they witnessed.
Methods used to help eyewitnesses remember what they saw P263 - 268 • Cognitive interview - eyewitness is asked to reconstruct report, recall and retrieve information about the crime • Forensic Hypnosis - artifically inducing a state of relaxation & concentration in which deeped parts of the mid are thought to be accessible • Line up – placing suspect(s) among distracters ( innocent fillers) and asking the eyewitness if he or she can identify the person they saw in the original event • Mug shots – eyewitness looks through photos of known criminals & see if they can recognise the suspect. • Constructing a facial composite - software is used to help eyewitnesses re- create a persons face
Methods used to help eyewitnesses remember what they saw – facial composities cont” • Complete activity 17.3 on page 268 Download Hot Potatoes & make a revision exercise Complete Unit test