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Anatomy of the Knee

Anatomy of the Knee

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Anatomy of the Knee

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  1. Anatomy of the Knee

  2. Bones of the Knee • Consists of 3 Bones: • Distal Part of the Femur • Proximal Tibia • Patella • The fibula is not considered part of the knee joint.

  3. Bones of the Knee

  4. Bones of the Knee

  5. Joints of the knee • The knee joint is the Largest joint in the body • Tibiofemoral Joint • Patellofemoral Joint • The Proximal Tibiofibular joint is not considered to be part of the knee joint.

  6. Ligaments of the Knee • Anterior Cruciate Ligament • Posterior Cruciate Ligament • Lateral Collateral Ligament • Medial Collateral Ligament

  7. Ligaments of the Knee(Anterior View)

  8. The Meniscus • 2 Fibrocartilage Discs: • Medial and Lateral Meniscus • Attached to the Tibial Plateaus and Joint Capsule Functions: • Distribute Joint Pressure • Add Stability • Shock Absorption • Lubrication

  9. The Meniscus

  10. Total Knee(Posterior View)

  11. Muscles of the Knee • Anterior Muscles: • The Quadriceps: • Rectus Femoris (two joint muscle) • VastusMedialis • VastusIntermedius • VastusLateralis • Sartorius

  12. Muscles of the Knee • Posterior: • Hamstrings: • Biceps Femoris • Semitendinosus • Semimembranosus • Gracilus • Popliteus • Gastrocnemius

  13. Muscles of the Knee OIA chart

  14. Muscles of the Knee OIA chart

  15. Bursa of the Knee

  16. ROM of the Knee • Tibiofemoral joint: • Flexion and Extension: 140-0 degrees • Knee Flexed: • Internal Rotation: 30 degrees • External Rotation: 45 degrees • “Screwing Home” Mechanism • During the final few degrees of knee extension the tibia externally rotates on the femur, which brings the knee into its closed packed position

  17. ROM of the Knee

  18. Alignments of the Knee • Q-angle • The angle of formed by the line connecting the ASIS to the center of the patella and the line connecting the center of the patella and the tibial tuberosity • Determines the line of pull of the patella at the patellofemoral joint • Normal Ranges: • 18 degrees female • 13 degrees male • Q-angle below normal: Genu Varum (bow-legged) • Q-angle above normal: Genu Valgum (knock Kneed)

  19. Alignments of the Knee