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I. The Nature of Science

I. The Nature of Science

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I. The Nature of Science

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  1. I. The Nature of Science A. How does science happen? 1. Scientists investigate 2. Scientists plan experiments 3. Scientists observe 4. Scientists always test results

  2. B. Science 1. a system of knowledge based on facts and principles 2. Science has many branches a. biological science – science of living things 1) botany – study of plants 2) zoology – study of animals 3) ecology – balance in nature 4) medicine

  3. b. physical science – science of matter and energy 1) physics – forces and energy 2) chemistry – matter and its changes

  4. c. earth science – science of the earth 1) geology – rocks and minerals – the science of the physical nature and history of the Earth 2) meteorology – atmosphere and weather d. crossover – ie. – biochemistry, geophysics

  5. C. Science and technology work together 1. technology a. the application of science

  6. D. Scientific Theories – Laws – Facts - Hypothesis 1. Fact – in science, an observation that has been repeatedly confirmed a. i.e. objects fall when dropped b. i.e. humans have 46 chromosomes

  7. 2. Law a. a descriptive generalization about how some aspect of the natural world behaves under stated circumstances b. i.e. the path of each planet around the sun is an ellipse with the sun at one focus (Kepler’s First Law of Planetary Motion)

  8. 3. Hypothesis a. a testable statement about the natural world that can be used to build more complex inferences and explanations b. If…then…

  9. 4. Theory a. a broad and comprehensive statement of what is believed to be true, supported by considerable experimental evidence resulting from many tests of related hypotheses

  10. c. Examples of Scientific Theories 1) atomic theory – all matter is made of atoms 2) cell theory – all living things are composed of cells 3) theory of gravitation – all matter attracts other matter 4) theory of plate tectonics – Earth’s crust is made of plates which move over time

  11. 5. Theories and laws are not absolute – as we do more experiments and learn more about the world around us, our explanations can change

  12. Why is it important to study science? So we can: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

  13. What do we need to know about science? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

  14. II. Science Safety A. What are the five most important things to remember about safety in the science laboratory? 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2002?

  15. III. The Way Science Works ** Critical Thinking – applying logic and reason to observations and conclusions A. Scientific Processes 1. Observing and Collecting Data a. all scientific understanding of the natural world is ultimately based on observations

  16. b. Observing 1) the use of one or more the five senses to perceive objects or events c. Collecting Data 1) the gathering and recording of specific information based on observations

  17. 2. Measuring a. the process of determining the dimensions of an object, the # of objects in a group, the duration of an event, or other characteristics in precise units

  18. b. Types of Data 1) quantitative data a) numbers b) ie- 2,457 meters, 87 seeds germinated 2) qualitative data a) descriptive (adjectives) b) ie – a long distance, dark green, plant B is taller than plant A

  19. c. accuracy 1. number that is close to the true value d. precision 1. number that is as exact as possible (ie – 47.452134 cm) Not Accurate Accurate

  20. c. accuracy 1. number that is close to the true value d. precision 1. number that is as exact as possible (ie – 47.452134 cm) Precise Not Accurate Precise Accurate

  21. 3. Organizing Data a. involves placing observations and measurements in some kind of logical order – graph, chart, map Prentice Hall Biology. Pearson Prentice Hall. 2002?

  22. 4. Classifying a. the process of grouping objects, organisms, or phenomena into an established organizational scheme, or developing new organizational schemes

  23. The Periodic Table PIC of Periodic Table Physical Science – Prentice Hall – Ch. 5 PowerPoint, 2007.

  24. 5. Hypothesizing a. the process of forming testable statements about observable phenomena b. hypothesis – testable statement c. a statement is testable if evidence can be collected that either supports the hypothesis or rejects it

  25. D. How to write a Hypothesis 1) the hypothesis must be a complete sentence 2) to the point/concise 3) must try to answer the question/problem 4) must be TESTABLE

  26. 5) “IF…THEN…” 6) do not use pronouns (I, we, it, etc.) – BE SPECIFIC 7) “IF (independent variable/cause)…THEN (dependent variable/effect)

  27. 6. Predicting a. After making a hypothesis, make a prediction b. Stating in advance the result that will be obtained from testing a hypothesis c. “If…then…”

  28. 7. Experimenting a. some hypotheses or predictions can be tested through observations in a natural setting while others cannot b. Experimenting – the process of testing a hypothesis or prediction by carrying out data – gathering procedures under controlled conditions

  29. c. controlled experiments 1) based on a comparison of a control group or phase with an experimental group or phase

  30. 2) independent variable a) the manipulated variable – the one that is different 3) dependent variable a) the thing that is different because of the independent variable – usually what is being measured

  31. 4) extraneous variables a) factors which may impact the effect on the dependent variable 5) validity a) do the results answer the questions that we are asking in the hypothesis 6) reliability a) will you get the same results if you do these procedures again 7) cause:effect = independent:dependent

  32. 8. Analyzing Data a. the process of determining whether data are reliable and whether they support or refute a given prediction or hypothesis

  33. b. ways to analyze data 1) using statistics 2) interpreting graphs 3) determining relationships between variables 4) comparing the data to those obtained from other studies 5) determining possible sources of experimental error

  34. 9. Inferring a. the process of drawing conclusions on the basis of facts or premises instead of direct perception b. Facts might include data gathered during a field study or an experiment c. Premises might include conclusions drawn from previous knowledge or from past experience d. some inferences are testable and some are not

  35. Observation vs. Inference StatementObservationInference Object A is round and orange. X Object A is a basketball. X Object C is round, black & white X Object C is larger than Object B X Object B is smooth X X Object B is a table-tennis ball Each object is used in a different sport X X

  36. 10. Modeling a. constructing a representation of an object, a system, or a process that helps to show relationships between data b. visual, verbal, mathematical c. model airplane, computer models, experiments in a lab, mathematical equations

  37. 11. Communicating a. sharing information 1) to keep from repeating experiments 2) Utilize resources more effectively 3) To keep from repeating failed experiments 4) Swap ideas b. scientific journals, newspapers, magazine, conferences, internet, television news

  38. B. The Scientific Method of Investigation 1. Identify the Problem 2. Review Related Literature 3. Develop a Hypothesis 4. Design the Experiment 5. Conduct the Experiment/ Make Observations 6. Draw Conclusions 7. Communicate the Findings

  39. *** Scientists do not always follow the above steps in order

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