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The Protestant Reformation - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Protestant Reformation

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  1. The Protestant Reformation

  2. The Protestant Reformation • Learning Goal • To identify causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation

  3. What does it mean to reform something? Change!!!

  4. Protestant Reformation October 31, 1517

  5. What was the Protestant Reformation? • Protestant Reformation - a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches

  6. Long-Term CAUSES • POLITICAL: Germany difficult to govern; German princes resented Pope’s authority & wanted Church property • ECONOMIC: Many merchants resented sending their money to the Church in Rome

  7. Long-Term CAUSES cont. • RELIGIOUS: Worldly behavior of Popes; many members of the clergy were engaged in corruption, abusing power. • SOCIAL: Renaissance ideas of secularism & individualism were in conflict with Church’s teachings; Gutenberg’s printing press

  8. Short-TermCAUSES • Indulgences – paying to be forgiven • 95 Theses – Martin Luther’s arguments posted for discussion • Diet of Worms (1521) – Luther declared a heretic for not recanting

  9. Studying to be a lawyer Had personal religious experience-fear Became Priest/teacher at the Church in Wittenberg, Germany Life of Martin Luther

  10. 95 Theses A. Salvation through faith NOT good works or indulgences (letters of pardon) B. The Bible, not the pope, is the ultimate authority C. All people who have faith are equal; therefore, there is no need for priests D. Priests can marry

  11. Clip of Martin Luther • List possible Causes of corruption in the Catholic Church as you view the clip http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oXzvXeJTZtY&feature=related&safety_mode=true&persist_safety_mode=1

  12. Life of Martin Luther • Excommunicated in 1520 • Tried at Diet of Worms in 1521 • “Here I stand…” • Began a religious War

  13. John Calvin • Huguenot (French Protestant  Switzerland) agreed with Luther about faith not works • Predestination: God knows and has chosen a few “elect” people to save – he knows who is saved who is not • Established a theocracy – a government controlled by church leaders (Geneva)

  14. Society of Jesuits – spread Catholicism through education & missionary work Reform papacy – eliminate corruption & worldliness Council of Trent: reaffirmed Catholic beliefs – 7 Sacraments, good works, celibacy Ignatius of Loyola Counter-Reformation

  15. Wanted a divorce to produce an heir Established the Anglican Church (Church of England) with the Act of Supremacy in 1534 No real doctrinal changes Henry VIII1529

  16. Restored Protestantism in England after “Bloody” Mary by compromising between Catholics & Protestants Elizabeth disliked and punished extreme Protestants and extreme Catholics who tried to convert people to their faiths. Elizabeth I1558-1603

  17. Short-term Effects • European wars & persecutions • Religious Divisions in Western Europe

  18. Short-term EffectsCouncil of Trent • The Catholic- or Counter-Reformation

  19. Long-term Effects • Protestant churches spring up • Political figures (kings) gain authority over Church • Independent city-states develop • Absolute power of Catholic Church broken • Catholic Church stops abuses; Jesuits establish schools, & seek converts

  20. Branches of Christianity

  21. Closure • Why did the Protestant Reformation happen? • Who wrote the 95 Thesis? • How did they criticize the Catholic Churches teachings? • What were some of the effects of the Reformation?

  22. Definition of Terms • Reformation • Protestant • Theses • Indulgence • Peace of Augsberg

  23. Reformation Protestant Theses Indulgence Peace of Augsberg a. Money given to Church in order to obtain forgiveness b. Scholarly arguments meant to invite debate over a topic c. Reform of Christian faith – early attempts were unsuccessful d. After Charles V fought German princes, each prince could decide religion e. Christians who protested against the Catholic Church formed the 3rd branch of Christianity Vocabulary

  24. Years (80) later, the Pilgrims & Puritans who followed John Calvin’s strict teachings thought the Anglican Church needed to be “purified” Some left for the Americas; others stayed in England & rebelled against King Charles I Impact on the United States

  25. Branches of Christianity • Catholicism (1054) • Orthodox (1054) • Protestant (1517)

  26. 4 Main Protestant Branches • Lutheranism • followed Luther; against indulgences; faith not works, & importance of the Bible • Calvinism – • Followed John Calvin & his teachings of predestination; important to Pilgrims & Puritans who sought religious freedom in the Americas

  27. 4 Main Protestant Branches • Anglican • King Henry VIII & Elizabeth I in England • Anabaptist • Adult baptism and complete separation of church and state