Scientific Approach • Seeking information in a • systematic and • unbiased manner
Scientific Approach • Goals • Explanation (Understand) • Prediction • Control (Influence)
Scientific Approach General Methods of Behavioral Research---A Continuum: Natural Field Laboratory <Observat. Survey Exper. Experiment.> (Case) THE FURTHER TO THE RIGHT: -The higher the control of the Independent Variable(s). -The higher the precision in measuring the Dependent Variable(s). -The lower the realism.
What, No Lecture? Students in a basic Economics course were randomly assigned to one of the following class sections: • Live Lecture • Videotaped Lecture • Text Only
What, No Lecture? Ranking on Tests: • Text • Lecture • Videotape The differences were NOT statistically significant. The study is a good example of a Field Experiment.
Laboratory Experiment Impressions of Organizational Responses to Whistleblower Accusations” – Decker & Calo Dependent Variables: 1) Respondents’ ratings of Firm 2) Respondents’ ratings of Whistleblower Independent Variables: 1) Customer: Individuals vs. Govt. Agencies 2) Company Product: Tires vs. Paint 3) Firm Admits Guilt vs. Firm Denies 4) Whistleblower is Fired vs. Not Fired
Laboratory Experiment Results: Ratings of the Firm 1) Customer: Individuals vs. Govt. Agencies Difference Not Significant 2) Product: Tires vs. Paint Paint company rated higher 3) Firm Admits Guilt vs. Firm Denies 4) Whistleblower is Fired vs. Not Fired Variables 3 and 4 Interacted (effect of one depends on the level of the other) ---Firm rated highest when Admitting Guilt AND not firing the Whistleblower (Equally low with the other 3 combinations)