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Prototyping. Object-Oriented Software Engineering CS350. Prototyping. 1960s and 1970s Monolithic development cycle Building the entire program first Then working out inconsistencies between design and implementation Led to higher software costs and poor estimates of time and cost

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Object-Oriented Software EngineeringCS350

  • 1960s and 1970s
    • Monolithic development cycle
    • Building the entire program first
    • Then working out inconsistencies between design and implementation
    • Led to higher software costs and poor estimates of time and cost
    • Called the "Slaying the (software) Dragon" technique
prototyping process
Prototyping Process
  • Identify basic requirements
    • Determine basic requirements including the input and output information desired
    • Details, such as security, can typically be ignored
  • Develop Initial Prototype
    • The initial prototype is developed that includes only user interfaces
  • Review
    • The customers, including end-users, examine the prototype and provide feedback on additions or changes
  • Revise and Enhance the Prototype
    • Using feedback both specifications and prototype can be improved
    • Negotiation about what is within the scope of the contract/product may be necessary
  • Repeat steps #3 and #4 as needed
dimensions of prototypes
Dimensions of Prototypes
  • Horizontal prototypes
  • Vertical prototypes
horizontal prototype
Horizontal Prototype
  • User interface prototype
  • Provides a broad view of an entire system or subsystem
  • Focuses on user interaction more than low-level system functionality
  • Useful for:
    • Confirmation of user interface requirements and system scope
    • Demonstration version of the system to obtain buy-in from the business
    • Develop preliminary estimates of development time, cost and effort
vertical prototype
Vertical Prototype
  • More complete elaboration of a single subsystem or function
  • Useful for obtaining detailed requirements for a given function, with the following benefits:
    • Refinement database design
    • Obtain information on data volumes and system interface needs, for network sizing and performance engineering
    • Clarifies complex requirements by drilling down to actual system functionality
types of prototyping
Types of Prototyping
  • Throwaway (Rapid) prototyping
  • Evolutionary prototyping
  • Incremental prototyping
  • Extreme prototyping
throwaway prototyping
Throwaway Prototyping
  • Write preliminary requirements
  • Design the prototype
  • User experiences/uses the prototype, specifies new requirements
  • Repeat if necessary
  • Write the final requirements
  • Develop the real products
throwaway prototyping1
Throwaway Prototyping
  • “Close-ended prototyping”
  • Creation of a model that will eventually be discarded rather than becoming part of the final delivered software
  • After preliminary requirements, a simple working model is constructed
  • Involves creating a working model of various system parts at a very early stage
  • Usually quite informal
  • Most important factor is speed
  • Model becomes starting point from which users can re-examine expectations and clarify requirements
  • Then the prototype model is 'thrown away'
throwaway prototyping2
Throwaway Prototyping
  • Can be done quickly
  • Quick feedback may enable early refinement
  • Can be extremely cost effective
    • Nothing at this point to redo
  • Cost of “fixes” grows exponentially with time
  • Speed is crucial in implementing a throwaway prototype, given limited budget of time and money
  • Ability to construct interfaces that the users can test
  • By seeing the interface, user can more easily grasp how the system will work
throwaway prototyping3
Throwaway Prototyping
  • More effective manner to deal with user requirements-related issues
  • Greater enhancement to software productivity overall
  • Ignores issues of evolvability, maintainability, and software structure
  • Requirements can be identified, simulated, and tested far more quickly and cheaply
  • Prototypes can be classified according to the fidelity, interaction and timing
evolutionary prototyping
Evolutionary Prototyping
  • “Breadboard prototyping”
  • Main goal is to build a very robust prototype in a structured manner and constantly refine it
  • System is continually refined and rebuilt
  • Acknowledges that we do not understand all the requirements
  • Builds only those that are well understood
evolutionary prototyping1
Evolutionary Prototyping
  • This technique allows the development team to add features, or make changes that couldn't be conceived during the requirements and design phase.
  • To be useful, system must evolve through use
  • A product is never "done"
  • System defined using where we are now
  • Assumptions made about the way business will be conducted and the technology base used
  • Plan is enacted to develop the capability
  • Sooner or later, something resembling the envisioned system is delivered
evolutionary prototyping2
Evolutionary Prototyping
  • As opposed to Throwaway Prototypes, they are functional systems
  • May be used on an interim basis until the final system is delivered
  • Not unusual to put an initial prototype to practical use while waiting for a more developed version
  • User may decide that a 'flawed' system is better than no system at all
evolutionary prototyping3
Evolutionary Prototyping
  • Developers can focus on developing parts of the system they understand
  • To minimize risk, developer does not implement poorly understood features
  • Users detect opportunities for new features and give requests to developers
  • Developers use requests to change the software-requirements specification, update the design, recode and retest
incremental prototyping
Incremental Prototyping
  • Final product is built as separate prototypes. At the end the separate prototypes are merged in an overall design.
extreme prototyping
Extreme Prototyping
  • Used especially for developing web applications
  • Three phases:
    • Static prototype that consists mainly of HTML pages
    • Screens are programmed and fully functional using a simulated services layer
    • Services are implemented
advantages of prototyping
Advantages of Prototyping
  • Reduced time and costs
    • Can improve the quality of requirements and specifications provided to developers
    • Early determination of what the user really wants can result in faster and less expensive software
  • Improved and increased user involvement
    • Requires user involvement
    • Provides better and more complete feedback and specifications
    • Prevents many misunderstandings and miss-communications
    • Can result in final product that has greater tangible and intangible quality
disadvantages of prototyping
Disadvantages of Prototyping
  • Insufficient analysis
    • Can distract developers from properly analyzing the complete project
    • Can lead to overlooking better solutions
    • May not scale well
  • User confusion of prototype and finished system
    • Think that a prototype is a final system
    • Expect the prototype accurately models performance of final system
    • Become attached to included features removed for final system
disadvantages of prototyping1
Disadvantages of Prototyping
  • Developer misunderstanding of user objectives:
    • May assume that users share their, without understanding wider commercial issues
    • May commit delivery before reviewing user requirements
  • Developer attachment to prototype:
    • Become attached to prototypes they have spent a great deal of effort producing
disadvantages of prototyping2
Disadvantages of Prototyping
  • Excessive development time of the prototype
    • May try to develop a prototype that is too complex
    • Users can become stuck in debates over details of the prototype
  • Expense of implementing prototyping
    • Start up costs for building a development team focused on prototyping may be high
    • Many companies tend to jump into prototyping without appropriately retraining workers
disadvantages of prototyping3
Disadvantages of Prototyping
  • High expectations for productivity with insufficient effort behind the learning curve
  • Overlooked need for developing corporate and project specific underlying structure to support the technology
best projects to use prototyping
Best projects to use prototyping
  • Analysis and design of on-line systems, especially for transaction processing
  • Systems with little user interaction, such as batch processing
  • Systems that mostly do calculations
  • Designing human-computer interfaces
  • Dynamic systems development
  • Operational prototyping
  • Evolutionary rapid development
  • Scrum
dynamic systems development dsdm
Dynamic Systems Development (DSDM)
  • Framework for delivering business solutions that relies heavily upon prototyping as a core technique
  • ISO 9001 approved
  • Prototypes intended to be incremental
dynamic systems development dsdm1
Dynamic Systems Development (DSDM)
  • Prototypes may be throwaway or evolutionary
  • Evolutionary prototypes may be evolved horizontally or vertically
  • Evolutionary prototypes can evolve into final systems
dynamic systems development dsdm2
Dynamic Systems Development (DSDM)
  • Four recommended prototypes categories:
    • Business prototypes
    • Usability prototypes
    • Performance and capacity prototypes
    • Capability/technique prototypes
dynamic systems development dsdm3
Dynamic Systems Development (DSDM)
  • Prototype life-cycle:
    • Identify prototype
    • Agree to a plan
    • Create the prototype
    • Review the prototype
operational prototyping
Operational Prototyping
  • Proposed by Alan Davis as a way to integrate throwaway and evolutionary prototyping with conventional system development
operational prototyping1
Operational Prototyping
  • Methodology:
    • Evolutionary prototype is constructed and made into a baseline using conventional development strategies
    • Baseline copies are sent to multiple customer sites along with a trained prototyper
    • Prototyper watches the user at the system
    • User problems, new feature ideas, or new requirements are logged by prototyper
    • After user session, prototyper constructs a throwaway prototype from baseline system
    • User evaluates new system; prototyper removes ineffective new changes
    • Prototyper writes feature-enhancement requests and forwards them to development team
    • Development team produces a new evolutionary prototype using conventional methods
evolutionary systems development
Evolutionary Systems Development
  • Class of methodologies that attempt to formally implement Evolutionary Prototyping
    • Ex. Systemscraft
evolutionary rapid development erd
Evolutionary Rapid Development (ERD)
  • Developed by the Software Productivity Consortium
  • Composes software systems based on
    • Reuse of components
    • Use of software templates
    • Architectural template
  • Continuous evolution of system highlighted by evolvable architecture
evolutionary rapid development erd1
Evolutionary Rapid Development (ERD)
  • Use of small artisan-based teams
    • Integrating software and systems engineering disciplines
    • Working multiple, often parallel short-duration timeboxes
    • Frequent customer interaction
  • Key to success
    • Parallel exploratory analysis and development of features, infrastructures and components
    • Adoption of leading edge technologies
evolutionary rapid development erd2
Evolutionary Rapid Development (ERD)
  • Frequent scheduled and ad hoc meetings with the stakeholders
  • Demonstrations of system capabilities to solicit
  • Frequent releases (e.g., betas)
  • Design framework based on existing published or de facto standards
  • System organized for evolving a set of capabilities that includes considerations for performance, capacities, and functionality
evolutionary rapid development erd3
Evolutionary Rapid Development (ERD)
  • Architecture
    • Defined in terms of abstract interfaces that encapsulate services and implementation (e.g., COTS applications)
    • Serves as a template for guiding development of more than a single instance of the system
    • Allows for multiple application components to implement services
evolutionary rapid development erd4
Evolutionary Rapid Development (ERD)
  • Structured to use demonstrated functionality rather than paper products to communicate stakeholder needs and expectations
  • Timeboxes: fixed periods of time in which specific tasks (e.g., developing a set of functionality) must be performed
  • To prevent development from degenerating into a "random walk," long-range plans are defined to guide the iterations
  • Each iteration is conducted in the context of long-range plans
  • Once an architecture is established, software is integrated and tested on a daily basis
  • Agile method for project management
  • First described by Takeuchi and Nonaka
  • Efficient prototyping requires
    • Proper tools
    • Staff trained to use those tools
  • Can vary from individual tools to complex integrated CASE tools
  • CASE tools are often developed or selected by the military or large organizations
  • Object oriented tools are being developed (Ex. LYMB, GE Research and Development Center)
  • Screen generators, design tools & Software Factories
  • Application definition or simulation software
  • Requirements Engineering Environment
screen generators design tools software factories
Screen Generators, Design Tools & Software Factories
  • Screen generating programs enable prototypers to show users screens for non-functional
  • Human Computer Interfaces (HCI) can sometimes be the critical part of the development effort
  • Software Factories
    • Code Generators
    • Allow you to model domain model and then drag and drop the UI
    • Enable you to run prototype and use basic database functionality
    • Can use UI Controls that will later be used for real development
application definition or simulation software
Application Definition or Simulation Software
  • Enable users to rapidly build lightweight, animated simulations of another computer program, without writing code
  • Allows both technical and non-technical users to experience, test, collaborate and validate the simulated program
  • Provides reports such as annotations, screenshot and schematics
  • One can also use software to simulate real-world software programs for computer based training, demonstration, and customer support
requirements engineering environment
Requirements Engineering Environment
  • Under development at Rome Laboratory since 1985
  • Provides an integrated toolset for rapidly representing, building, and executing models of critical aspects of complex systems
  • Currently used by the Air Force to develop systems
requirements engineering environment1
Requirements Engineering Environment
  • An integrated set of tools that allows systems analysts to rapidly build functional, user interface, and performance prototype models of system components
  • Modeling activities performed to gain greater understanding of complex systems and
  • Lessen impact that inaccurate requirement specifications have on cost and scheduling
requirements engineering environment2
Requirements Engineering Environment
  • Models can be
  • Constructed easily
  • At varying levels of abstraction or granularity
  • Composed of three parts
  • Proto, a CASE tool designed to support rapid prototyping
  • Rapid Interface Prototyping System (RIP), a collection of tools that facilitate the creation of user interfaces
  • A graphical user interface to RIP and proto intended to be easy to use