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Example validation expressions checks >1 And <100 – Type in a number between one and 100 = 1 Or 2 Or 3 – Must PowerPoint Presentation
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Example validation expressions checks >1 And <100 – Type in a number between one and 100 = 1 Or 2 Or 3 – Must - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Validation You can NEVER know that data is 100% correct. But you can put checks in place to make sure it is as correct as humanly possible. This is validation Checking data is VALID, using SOFTWARE at the INPUT stage.

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You can NEVER know that data is 100% correct. But you can put checks in place to make sure it is as correct as humanly possible. This is validation

Checking data is VALID, using SOFTWARE at the INPUT stage.

In other words, the computer uses software to check what is entered is reasonable when it is entered into the computer.

Data Information



Example validation expressions checks

>1 And <100 – Type in a number between one and 100

= 1 Or 2 Or 3 – Must be the number either 1, 2 or 3

>#01/01/2012# - It has to be a date after 1st Jan 2012


This is used to ensure data is as accurate as possible. Remember, it is not possible to check data is 100% correct.

Verification means to check the data that you have entered against the original source data. 

How is this done?

Entering the data twice (e.g. PASSWORDS).- Double Keying

Double Checking (Proof reading)

Verifying you are a human to prevent BOTS or AUTOMATED SIGN UPS by using CAPTCHA.


This is where you shorten a word or field Eg M/F (Male / Female)





Types of Animation:

Flip Books

Stop Motion (models)

Key Frame / Flash Animation (Flash)

3D Animation (Avatar)

web server


Web Hosting



PIXEL- a coloured dot in an image.

BITMAP- an image made up of pixels each having their own colour information.

VECTOR IMAGE - an image made up of shapes and lines.

IMAGE RESOLUTION - the amount of detail in an image.

  • Web Authoring
  • Why do companies use websites?
  • To reach a wider range of customers: (anyone, anywhere, any time).
  • To allow for 24/7 store opening.
  • To promote the business
  • Provide a mechanism of support for customers.
  • To interact with customers
  • There are some issues though…
  • Reliability
  • Crashes / down time
  • Difficulty reaching the right people
  • Spam
  • Bad Publicity

web designer

web surfer!

Rotoscoping - Taking real footage and tracing over it to produce an animation effect. EG Ipod advert


Multimedia is the combination of different elements:

Multimedia is used in many different places:



What is a LAN?

Local Area Network. A series of interconnected computers restricted to one site. Usually connected with a mix of cables and wireless technologies.

What is a WAN?

Wide Area Network. A series of interconnected computers over more than one physical site (area, town, city or even country!)

Connected with a range of technologies such as phone lines, satellite links, broadband, physical fibre optic link.

A Router - Allows multiple computers to use the same internet connection.

  • What is a network? - A series of interconnected computers, linked together either via cabling or wirelessly. Often linked via a central server but can be linked without a central computer.
  • What is a stand alone computer? - A computer which is not connected to a network. All devices are directly connected to that computer and all data is stored on each individual machine.

Social and Environmental Impact

Teleworking: Using internet or wireless technology to work from a different location other than the normal place of work (e.g. an office).

Web designer, Computer programmer, Solicitor, Games designer, Architect, Online tutor, Phone sales person, Online advice, Newspaper editor / journalist, Examiner / marker / moderator

Homeworking: Using internet or wireless technology to work from home as apposed to a normal place of work (e.g. an office!)

Video Conferencing

Videoconferencing allows

multiple people at different

locations to communicate

via video and audio.

Jobs that could use video conferencing

-Doctorto doctor – advice meetings.

-Teacher– teaching in adverse weather or cross school teaching.

-Courtrooms– remote witnesses can be questioned without having to be at court

The Digital Divide

The growth of IT has created a digital divide:

-People who can and cannot afford IT

-People who cannot afford internet access etc.

-People who cannot afford games consoles!

Divide between countries

-Some countries do not have adequate supplies of water, electricity etc.

-No IT infrastructure which means they cannot

take advantage of the discounts available with IT.

-Cannot afford new hardware or internet connectivity.

Employment Patterns

More technology = Less practical jobs and more service jobs.

Some jobs have gone, some jobs have been created as a result of IT.

For example: Car manufacture has been heavily replaced by robotics but service engineers have been created to maintain the robots!

As ICT has been introduced into an organisation, staff have had to retrain themselves into other jobs.

What the terms mean…

Social– How we communicate and interact with others. (see picture)

Economic– Money, jobs, buying, selling.

-Globalisation: resulted in a lot of service jobs being exported abroad.

-Call centres: cheaper to run abroad and VOIP makes it just as cheap to run anywhere in the world.

-Companies can sell to a wider market – good. But this is bad as the competition rises!

Political– Voice of the people, voting, freedom of speech.

-Voting: can now be done by post, text and online. It is possible, but not done! This would increase voting!

-Some governments restrict information.

-Freedom writers: anyone can blog and reveal information online (e.g. Wiki Leaks).

-More information readily available about government activity online.

Legal– Laws and crimes and criminal activity.

Ethical– What is right or wrong.

-Social networks – information posted can be used against people: e.g. in job applications or as a means of dismissal if slanderous company comments are made.

-Activity monitored at work – online use.

-Websites tracking personal information about you (cookies).

-Companies selling personal data or using it without your permission.

Moral issues – The use or doing of things generally impact upon others in some way.

-Illegal downloading of music, software etc.

-Accessing inappropriate content online.

-Copying information (e.g. cds, software etc.) more easily possible.

-Essay banks or sites where you can post a fee and people do work for you.



How do ICT systems help the environment?

Energy Monitor

GPS Systems – efficient routes

Auto Stand by / Auto off (e.g. Sky at 2am)

Fuel efficient cars/ hybrid / electric


GUI – Graphical User Interface

Menu Driven

Voice Driven

CLI – Command Line Interface











Walking (Gait)


ICT in Organisations - 1

MICR – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition

The writing on the bottom of the cheque is written in magnetic ink. The cheque is then read through a MICR reader machine that reads the magnetic ink.


-Quick to read into a machine in a bank

-Difficult to forge

-Readable even if torn or folded


-MICR machine is expensive

-Cheques not accepted by many organisations any more


Allows access to account online

Can set up payments, direct debits etc.

Can access 24/7 from home.

Can read statements and do a lot of services (order replacement cards etc.).

Apply for additional services (loans, mortgages etc.)





Everyone gets paid for the work they do. Payroll systems manage the people who work for a business and ensure they get paid the correct amount and tax etc. is paid.

Payment is processed and sent to bank accounts

for employees. A wage slip is also produced

Which gives out important information:

3 Types of security

Physical Security – Eg alarms, locked doors, fire protection, doors locked etc

Access Security – usernames/passwords, password policy, access

rights and Firewalls

Data Security – password protect, restrict access, backups,

Read-only files, Encryption


ICT in Organisations 2

Robotics and bionics

Robotics: the practical use of robots in domestic or practical environments.

Robots perform a sequence of pre-programmed instructions to carry out repetitive tasks.

Instructions are carried out in REAL TIME when needed.

Bionics: Applying biological science to electronic systems.

  • INPUT: The heat sensor would read the temperature of your home.
  • PROCESS: Would check the recorded temperature against the temperature you have set (23 degrees).
    • IF IT IS <23 THEN the OUTPUT would be a signal to switch the heating on.
    • IF IT IS >=23 THEN the OUTPUT would be a signal to switch the heating off.
    • IF the heating is switched on, the system would keep checking the temperature, by getting FEEDBACK. Once it reaches 23, the heating would then switch off.

Safety in Organisations

  • Health
  • Eye strain and headaches
  • Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI)
  • Back problems
  • Stress

The Data Protection Act 1998

The Data Protection Act 1998 sets out to protect the privacy of personal information.

It only covers personal information about living individuals, not about businesses.

It covers data stored on computer or in a paper-based filing system.

It lets people check what data is being held about them.

The act says that data must be: (The 8 Principles)

Must be kept Secure

Let subjects see the data stored on them

Must be kept Up-to-Date

Should be Relevant

Used for intended Purpose

Obtained Lawfully


Should not be kept For longer than necessary


Exemptions to the Act

There are a few cases when the Data Protection Act does not apply. These are called exemptions to the Act. Here are a few of them:

- national security – you cannot demand to see your data if national security is at stake

- police investigations – information being used to prevent crime is not covered (though police records are)

- examination results are exempt until they are published by the examining bodies.

  • Safety
  • Monitors near end of desk (strong benches)
  • Space around work area
  • Food and Drink
  • Wires trailing
  • Too many plugs in sockets
  • Good lighting- No glare/reflection

Types of Cyber crime



Phishing & Pharming

Denial of Service Attacks


Credit Card Fraud


Fake websites



  • Employer regulations – (THE LAW)
  • The law states that an employer must:
  • Provide tiltable screens
  • Provide anti-glare screen filters
  • Provide adjustable chairs
  • Provide foot supports
  • Make sure lighting is suitable
  • Make sure workstations are not cramped
  • Plan work at a computer so that there are frequent breaks
  • Pay for appropriate eye and eyesight tests by an optician

Flexible Screen (wrapped around a pencil)

  • New technology is emerging every single day to improve our lives and the world around us.
  • All technology has it’s benefits and also it’s drawbacks.
  • Some technology will change the way we live, work and communicate together.
  • Some technology will start the development of things quite fantastic.

Emerging Technologies

Portable tablet PC’s (e.g. iPad)

Smart Phones (Windows Phones,

Android, Iphones).

Netbooks & Portable Computing

Flexible screens: Flash paper

In-magazine videos (e.g. pepsi advert).



Replacement barcodes (bokodes)


Smart Cars

QR code



Self driving Google car


Long checkout lines at the shops could disappear when the bar code is replaced by smart labels, also called radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.

RFID tags are intelligent bar codes that can talk to a networked system to track every product that you put in your shopping trolley.

Imagine going to Tesco, filling up your trolley and walking right out the door. No longer will you have to wait as someone scans in each item in your trolley one at a time. Instead, these RFID tags will communicate with an electronic reader that will detect every item in the cart and ring each up almost instantly. It will then deduct the money from your bank account.