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Validation You can NEVER know that data is 100% correct. But you can put checks in place to make sure it is as correct as humanly possible. This is validation Checking data is VALID, using SOFTWARE at the INPUT stage.
You can NEVER know that data is 100% correct. But you can put checks in place to make sure it is as correct as humanly possible. This is validation
Checking data is VALID, using SOFTWARE at the INPUT stage.
In other words, the computer uses software to check what is entered is reasonable when it is entered into the computer.
Example validation expressions checks
>1 And <100 – Type in a number between one and 100
= 1 Or 2 Or 3 – Must be the number either 1, 2 or 3
>#01/01/2012# - It has to be a date after 1st Jan 2012
This is used to ensure data is as accurate as possible. Remember, it is not possible to check data is 100% correct.
Verification means to check the data that you have entered against the original source data.
How is this done?
Entering the data twice (e.g. PASSWORDS).- Double Keying
Double Checking (Proof reading)
Verifying you are a human to prevent BOTS or AUTOMATED SIGN UPS by using CAPTCHA.
This is where you shorten a word or field Eg M/F (Male / Female)
Types of Animation:
Stop Motion (models)
Key Frame / Flash Animation (Flash)
3D Animation (Avatar)
PIXEL- a coloured dot in an image.
BITMAP- an image made up of pixels each having their own colour information.
VECTOR IMAGE - an image made up of shapes and lines.
IMAGE RESOLUTION - the amount of detail in an image.
Rotoscoping - Taking real footage and tracing over it to produce an animation effect. EG Ipod advert
Multimedia is the combination of different elements:
Multimedia is used in many different places:
What is a LAN?
Local Area Network. A series of interconnected computers restricted to one site. Usually connected with a mix of cables and wireless technologies.
What is a WAN?
Wide Area Network. A series of interconnected computers over more than one physical site (area, town, city or even country!)
Connected with a range of technologies such as phone lines, satellite links, broadband, physical fibre optic link.
A Router - Allows multiple computers to use the same internet connection.
Teleworking: Using internet or wireless technology to work from a different location other than the normal place of work (e.g. an office).
Web designer, Computer programmer, Solicitor, Games designer, Architect, Online tutor, Phone sales person, Online advice, Newspaper editor / journalist, Examiner / marker / moderator
Homeworking: Using internet or wireless technology to work from home as apposed to a normal place of work (e.g. an office!)
multiple people at different
locations to communicate
via video and audio.
Jobs that could use video conferencing
-Doctorto doctor – advice meetings.
-Teacher– teaching in adverse weather or cross school teaching.
-Courtrooms– remote witnesses can be questioned without having to be at court
The Digital Divide
The growth of IT has created a digital divide:
-People who can and cannot afford IT
-People who cannot afford internet access etc.
-People who cannot afford games consoles!
Divide between countries
-Some countries do not have adequate supplies of water, electricity etc.
-No IT infrastructure which means they cannot
take advantage of the discounts available with IT.
-Cannot afford new hardware or internet connectivity.
More technology = Less practical jobs and more service jobs.
Some jobs have gone, some jobs have been created as a result of IT.
For example: Car manufacture has been heavily replaced by robotics but service engineers have been created to maintain the robots!
As ICT has been introduced into an organisation, staff have had to retrain themselves into other jobs.
What the terms mean…
Social– How we communicate and interact with others. (see picture)
Economic– Money, jobs, buying, selling.
-Globalisation: resulted in a lot of service jobs being exported abroad.
-Call centres: cheaper to run abroad and VOIP makes it just as cheap to run anywhere in the world.
-Companies can sell to a wider market – good. But this is bad as the competition rises!
Political– Voice of the people, voting, freedom of speech.
-Voting: can now be done by post, text and online. It is possible, but not done! This would increase voting!
-Some governments restrict information.
-Freedom writers: anyone can blog and reveal information online (e.g. Wiki Leaks).
-More information readily available about government activity online.
Legal– Laws and crimes and criminal activity.
Ethical– What is right or wrong.
-Social networks – information posted can be used against people: e.g. in job applications or as a means of dismissal if slanderous company comments are made.
-Activity monitored at work – online use.
-Websites tracking personal information about you (cookies).
-Companies selling personal data or using it without your permission.
Moral issues – The use or doing of things generally impact upon others in some way.
-Illegal downloading of music, software etc.
-Accessing inappropriate content online.
-Copying information (e.g. cds, software etc.) more easily possible.
-Essay banks or sites where you can post a fee and people do work for you.
How do ICT systems help the environment?
GPS Systems – efficient routes
Auto Stand by / Auto off (e.g. Sky at 2am)
Fuel efficient cars/ hybrid / electric
CLI – Command Line Interface
MICR – Magnetic Ink Character Recognition
The writing on the bottom of the cheque is written in magnetic ink. The cheque is then read through a MICR reader machine that reads the magnetic ink.
-Quick to read into a machine in a bank
-Difficult to forge
-Readable even if torn or folded
-MICR machine is expensive
-Cheques not accepted by many organisations any more
Allows access to account online
Can set up payments, direct debits etc.
Can access 24/7 from home.
Can read statements and do a lot of services (order replacement cards etc.).
Apply for additional services (loans, mortgages etc.)
Everyone gets paid for the work they do. Payroll systems manage the people who work for a business and ensure they get paid the correct amount and tax etc. is paid.
Payment is processed and sent to bank accounts
for employees. A wage slip is also produced
Which gives out important information:
3 Types of security
Physical Security – Eg alarms, locked doors, fire protection, doors locked etc
Access Security – usernames/passwords, password policy, access
rights and Firewalls
Data Security – password protect, restrict access, backups,
Read-only files, Encryption
Robotics and bionics
Robotics: the practical use of robots in domestic or practical environments.
Robots perform a sequence of pre-programmed instructions to carry out repetitive tasks.
Instructions are carried out in REAL TIME when needed.
Bionics: Applying biological science to electronic systems.
The Data Protection Act 1998
The Data Protection Act 1998 sets out to protect the privacy of personal information.
It only covers personal information about living individuals, not about businesses.
It covers data stored on computer or in a paper-based filing system.
It lets people check what data is being held about them.
The act says that data must be: (The 8 Principles)
Must be kept Secure
Let subjects see the data stored on them
Must be kept Up-to-Date
Should be Relevant
Used for intended Purpose
Should not be kept For longer than necessary
Exemptions to the Act
There are a few cases when the Data Protection Act does not apply. These are called exemptions to the Act. Here are a few of them:
- national security – you cannot demand to see your data if national security is at stake
- police investigations – information being used to prevent crime is not covered (though police records are)
- examination results are exempt until they are published by the examining bodies.
Types of Cyber crime
Phishing & Pharming
Denial of Service Attacks
Credit Card Fraud
Portable tablet PC’s (e.g. iPad)
Smart Phones (Windows Phones,
Netbooks & Portable Computing
Flexible screens: Flash paper
In-magazine videos (e.g. pepsi advert).
Replacement barcodes (bokodes)
Self driving Google car
Long checkout lines at the shops could disappear when the bar code is replaced by smart labels, also called radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.
RFID tags are intelligent bar codes that can talk to a networked system to track every product that you put in your shopping trolley.
Imagine going to Tesco, filling up your trolley and walking right out the door. No longer will you have to wait as someone scans in each item in your trolley one at a time. Instead, these RFID tags will communicate with an electronic reader that will detect every item in the cart and ring each up almost instantly. It will then deduct the money from your bank account.