The spectrum of use and the historical context
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The Spectrum of Use and the Historical Context. Lecture 2 Chapters 1 & 2. Drugs Are Old. Drugs have been around since the dawn of time… probably. Coming on the Scene. Alcohol as early as 6400 years BC (Middle East) Opium 5000 BC (China) Cannabis 3000 years BC (Middle East) Coca 3000 BC

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Drugs are old
Drugs Are Old

Drugs have been around since the dawn of time… probably


Coming on the scene
Coming on the Scene

  • Alcohol as early as 6400 years BC (Middle East)

  • Opium 5000 BC (China)

  • Cannabis 3000 years BC (Middle East)

  • Coca 3000 BC

  • Tobacco 100 BC (Mexico)

  • Cocaine Extracted 1855

  • Heroin 1874

  • MDMA (XTC) 1912

  • LSD 1938


A history of drug laws in the us
A History of Drug Laws in the US

  • 1906 Pure Food and Drug Act

  • 1914 Harrison Narcotic Act

  • 1920 Alcohol Prohibited 18th Amendment

  • 1930 Establishment of FBN, now DEA

  • 1933 Alcohol back 21st Amendment

  • 1937 Marijuana Tax Act

  • 1970 Controlled Substances Act

  • 1984 Scheduling Act

  • 1986 Anti-drug Abuse Act (Mandatory Minimum)

  • 1988 Chemical Diversion and Trafficking Act

  • 1996 Comprehensive Meth Control Act

  • Compassionate Use Acts



Drug use stats
Drug Use Stats

Our Class Our Class UNCW College

Ever Last 30 Students (L30) Students

` (L30)

Alcohol 98%98% 72% 71.8%

Pot 79.6% 47% 25% 16.8%

Hall 41.7% 4% 4.9% 1.1%

Cocaine 32.7% 12.2% 4.8% 2.2%

XTC 26.5% 4.1% 1.1% 1%

Opiates 51% 22.4% 8-10%

Benzos 40.8% 26.5%4-10%

Stimulants 38.8% 16.2% 4-10%


Quantity frequency
Quantity/Frequency

Class

Alcohol 12.2% on 20 or more days

18.8% on 15 or more

Pot 15(30.1%) on 15 or more days

3(6.1%) of you are high right now



The spectrum of use
The Spectrum of Use

  • Use – Periodic non-problematic use

  • Misuse – Periodic use

  • Abuse – A pattern of misuse

  • Dependence – Compulsive problematic use, often with physiological dependence


The spectrum of use and the historical context
Use

  • Many drugs can be used relatively safely

  • Most people who use drugs do not develop problems; however, this depends on the drug

  • Drugs are used for many reasons

    • Social

    • Religious

    • Coping

    • Experimentation


Misuse
Misuse

  • Periodic circumscribed negative consequences

    • College students and alcohol

    • “It only happened once.”

    • Sometimes the consequences are catastrophic


Dsm iv abuse
DSM-IV Abuse

1. Failure to fulfill major role obligations

2. Use in hazardous situations

3. Legal problems

4. Use despite problems

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Dsm iv dependence
DSM-IV Dependence

1. Tolerance

2. Withdrawal

3. Larger amounts/longer period than intended

4. Inability to, or persistent desire to, cut down

or control

5. A great deal of time spent obtaining, using, or

recovering

6. Important activities given up or reduced

7. Use despite problems caused or exacerbated by use

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Public health model
Public Health Model

  • Agent Factors – Properties of the drug or substance

  • Host Factors – Characteristics of the person

  • Environment Factors – Context/Situation