Strengthening the Crossroads: Education, Gender Equality and Economic Development Putu M. Kamayana Country Director, Cambodia Resident Mission Asian Development Bank
What is a country’s Crisis Vulnerability and Coping Capacity? There are two main factors that determine the extent to which a country’s growth and MDG achievement are threatened by the global economic crisis: • Degree of integration into the global economy • Capacity to cope with the effects of any crisis
Millennium Development Goals at Risk • The effects of the global economic crisis was first felt in higher unemployment, however the effects have rippled through Asian economies. • Asian economies have seen a reduction in employment and job creation, as well as cuts in household and government spending which have lead to higher levels of poverty and threaten standards of education and health. • Such a downturn has consequences for the achievement of the MDGs.
Countries Facing the Greatest Risk and Effect on Education and Gender Equity • The countries that face the greatest risk in meeting the MDGs for ending poverty and hunger, reducing child malnutrition, and achieving Universal Primary Education include: Lao PDR, Cambodia, and Nepal. • Though children enroll in primary education, they do not complete due to issues of poverty that are compounded during a crisis. • Vulnerable groups have a heavy burden to bear as a result of a crisis. • Women are among those who are hurt the most.
Effects of Global Economic Crisis on Women The case of women in Cambodia… • Women dominate the workforce in garment factories. • Between 2008-2009 63,000 women workers (18% of the workforce) in garment factories were laid off due to closure of 50 factories. • Those that stayed in the workforce earned 18% less in real terms during that time. • Remittances to families in rural areas fell by 16%. • Consequences: increasing migration for work, reduced food consumption, and reduced expenditure on healthcare.
Crossroads Empowerment of Women Economic Development Education and Skills Training
Investments in Education and Returns to the Economy • Each year of schooling increases individual output by 4-7%. • Countries that improve literacy rates by 20-30% have seen increases in GDP of 8-16%. • Educating girls yields a higher rate of return than any other investment. • In 2005, only 59 of 181 countries had achieved gender parity in their gross enrolment rates for both primary and secondary education. • Women experience an 18% return on secondary education, versus 14% for boys.
TVET: Providing Skills for Economic Growth • TVET sector presents opportunities for new innovative strategies to increase the number of young women accessing secondary and post-secondary education. • Only 20% of girls of the appropriate age in LDCs attend secondary school at all, let alone in TVET programs. • In Cambodia, it is even lower at 11% (UNICEF, 2007).
Cambodia: Education & Training Development Progress… • 95% net enrollment ratio for primary education. • Increased total gross enrollment ratio for secondary education (58% for lower secondary and 30% for upper secondary). • Gender parity achieved in enrollments at primary and secondary levels. Challenges… • Completion of Grade 6 is leveling off and beginning to fall. • Secondary school dropout is a major problem to achieving EFA (20% lower secondary dropout rate and 12% for upper secondary dropout). • Females dropout from secondary school more than males.
Cambodia: Education & Training Development (cont.) Progress… • Number of higher education institutions has increased following policies to expand access through public-private partnerships. • Female enrollment in formal TVET courses is 25% but forms majority in informal courses. Challenges… • Higher education institutions exhibit low levels of institutional efficiency and quality. • Access to TVET courses is limited.
Strengthening Education and Training to Promote Greater Gender Equity Gender Equity Focus vs. Female Focus Equity measures contributing to achieving equality: • Equality of access • Equality in the learning process • Equality of educational outcomes • Equality of external results
Thank you Please visit http://www.adb.org/cambodia http://www.adb.org/gender