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Motivating Employees. Chapter Sixteen. Class Activity. List five criteria (pay, challenge, etc) that would be important to you in your first job after college. Rank them by order of importance. . Motivation.

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motivating employees

Motivating Employees

Chapter Sixteen

class activity
Class Activity
  • List five criteria (pay, challenge, etc) that would be important to you in your first job after college.
  • Rank them by order of importance.
  • An individual’s willingness to exert high levels of effort to reach organizational goals, conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need.
  • Effort—intensity and quality.
  • Need—internal state that makes certain outcomes appear attractive.
the motivation process
The Motivation Process









  • Intensity
  • Direction
  • Persistence
early theories of motivation
Early Theories of Motivation
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
  • Physiological needs—food, drink, shelter, sexual satisfaction, and other physical requirements.
  • Safety needs—security and protection from physical and emotional harm, and assurance that physical needs will continue to be met.
  • Social needs—affection, friendship, belongingness, and acceptance.
  • Esteem needs—internal factors such as self-respect, autonomy, and achievement; external factors such as status, recognition, and attention.
  • Self-actualization needs—growth, achieving one’s potential, and self-fulfillment
maslow s hierarchy of needs continued
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (continued….)







mcgregor s theory x and theory y
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
  • Theory X—assumption that employees dislike work, are lazy, avoid responsibility, and must be coerced to perform.
  • Theory Y—assumption that employees are creative, enjoy work, seek responsibility, and can exercise self-direction.
mcgregor s theory x and y continued
McGregor’s Theory X and Y (continued….)



Theory Y




Theory X


herzberg s motivation hygiene theory
Herzberg’s Motivation-Hygiene Theory
  • Intrinsic factors are related to job satisfaction and motivation, whereas extrinsic factors are associated with job dissatisfaction.
contrasting views of satisfaction dissatisfaction
Contrasting Views of Satisfaction-Dissatisfaction

Traditional View

Herzberg’s View


Hygiene Factors

in class activity
In-Class Activity
  • Visit the “Motivating Employees” discussion board.
  • For four of the posted websites, reply to the post and identify how the early motivational theories influenced the recommendations listed on the website.
  • Be specific and give examples.
contemporary theories of motivation15
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • Three-Needs Theory
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Reinforcement Theory
  • Designing Motivating Jobs Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
three needs theory17
Three-Needs Theory

Three acquired (not innate) needs that are major motives for work.

  • Need for Achievement (nAch)—drive to excel, to achieve in relation to a set of standards.
  • Need for Power (nPow)—need to make others behave differently.
  • Need for Affiliation (nAff)—desire for friendly and close relationships.
need for achievement
Need for Achievement
  • Prefer jobs that provide rapid and unambiguous feedback on their performance.
  • Motivated by the challenge of working at a problem and accepting personal responsibility for success or failure.
  • High achievers avoid what they perceive to be very easy or very difficult tasks.
  • High achievers don’t necessarily make good managers.
need for power and need for affiliation
Need for Power and Need for Affiliation
  • Best managers tend to be high in the need for power and low in the need for affiliation.
measuring the three needs
Measuring the Three Needs
  • Thematic Apperception Test (TAT) is a projective personality test.
  • Apperception is the process of understanding through linkage with previous experience.
  • In a projective test, patterns of thought, attitudes, and emotional responses are evaluated on the basis of responses to ambiguous test materials.
  • In a TAT, 31 picture cards are used to stimulate stories or descriptions about relationships or social situations.
drawbacks of thematic apperception test
Drawbacks of Thematic Apperception Test
  • Lack of a standardized method of administration.
  • Lack of standard norms for interpretation.
  • Race, sex, and social class of examiners and participants influence the stories that are told by participants and the way the stories are interpreted by the examiner.
  • The 31 standard pictures have been criticized for being too gloomy or depressing, and therefore limiting the range of personality characteristics that the test can assess.
goal setting theory23
Goal-Setting Theory
  • The proposition that specific goals increase performance, and that difficult goals, when accepted, result in higher performance than do easy goals.
goal setting theory continued
Goal-Setting Theory (continued….)
  • Goals are public
  • Internal locus of
  • control
  • Self-set goals



To Achieving


(Intention to work

toward goal)

Higher performance


Goal achievement





  • Specific
  • Difficult

Self-generated feedback on progress


in Setting

reinforcement theory26
Reinforcement Theory
  • Behavior is a function of its consequences.
  • Reinforcers—any consequence immediately following a response that increases the probability that the behavior will be repeated.
reinforcement theory continued
Reinforcement Theory (continued….)
  • People will most likely engage in desired behaviors if they are rewarded for doing so.
  • Those rewards are most effective if they immediately follow a desired behavior.
  • Behavior that isn’t rewarded, or is punished, is less likely to be repeated.
designing motivating jobs theory29
Designing Motivating Jobs Theory
  • Job enlargement—horizontal expansion of a job; increase number and variety of tasks performed.
  • Job enrichment—vertical expansion of a job; provide more autonomy, responsibility, and decision-making authority.
  • Job characteristics model—a framework for analyzing and designing jobs that identifies five primary job characteristics, their interrelationships, and their impact on outcomes.
five core dimensions of the job characteristics model jcm
Five Core Dimensions of the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)
  • Skill variety—degree to which a job requires a variety of activities so that an employee can use a number of different skills and talents.
  • Task identity—degree to which a job requires completion of a whole and identifiable piece of work.
  • Task significance—degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the lives or work of others.
  • Autonomy—degree to which a job provides substantial independence in scheduling the work and determining the procedures.
  • Feedback—degree to which carrying out work activities results in an individual receiving direct and clear information about his or her performance.
in class activity31

In-Class Activity

Job Redesign Using the Job Characteristics Model (JCM)

job redesign using jcm
Job Redesign Using JCM
  • Select a job that you have held (current or previous).
  • Analyze the job looking at the five core dimensions of the JCM. (Low, Medium, High)
  • Based on that analysis, redesign the job using the Guidelines for Job Redesign, exhibit 16-8 on page 402.
  • Email the analysis and redesign to me in a Word document. Subject line: BA200: last name + JCM. Be sure to include your name on the Word document.
contemporary theories of motivation33
Contemporary Theories of Motivation
  • Three-Needs Theory
  • Goal-Setting Theory
  • Reinforcement Theory
  • Designing Motivating Jobs Theory
  • Equity Theory
  • Expectancy Theory
equity theory

Equity Theory

The theory that an employee compares his or her job’s input-outcomes ratio with that of relevant others and then corrects any inequity.

typical actions with perceived inequities
Typical Actions with Perceived Inequities
  • Distort either their own or others’ inputs or outcomes.
  • Behave in some way to cause others to change their inputs or outcomes.
  • Behave in some way to change their own inputs or outcomes.
  • Choose a different comparison person.
  • Quit the job.
  • The persons, systems, or selves against which individuals compare themselves.
    • Persons—individuals with similar jobs in the same organization, friends, and professional associates.
    • Systems—organizational pay policies and procedures, and the administration of the system.
    • Selves—past jobs, personal commitments.
equity research areas
Equity Research Areas
  • Distributive justice
  • Procedural justice
increasing perception of procedural justice
Increasing Perception of Procedural Justice
  • Openly share information on how allocation decisions are made.
  • Follow consistent and unbiased procedures.
expectancy theory

Expectancy Theory

The theory that an individual tends to act in a certain way based on the expectation that the act will result in an attractive outcome for the individual.

motivating a diverse workforce

Autonomy in their jobs


Opportunity to learn

Flexible work hours

Good interpersonal relationships

Motivating a Diverse Workforce
flexible working schedules
Flexible Working Schedules
  • Compressed workweek—employees work longer hours per day but fewer days per week.
  • Flexible work hours (flextime)—employees are required to work a specific number of hours a week but are free to vary those hours within certain limits.
  • Job sharing—the practice of having two or more people split a full-time job.
  • Telecommuting—Employees work at home and are linked to the workplace through technology.
motivating professionals
Motivating Professionals
  • Strong and long-term commitment to their field of expertise.
  • Updating knowledge is important.
  • Money and promotions tend to rank low on their priority list.
  • Job challenge tends to rank high.
  • Value support.
motivating contingent workers
Motivating Contingent Workers
  • Temporary not by choice
    • Opportunity to become a permanent employee.
    • Opportunity for training.
    • References.
  • Temporary by choice
    • Opportunity for training.
    • Support.
    • Challenge.
designing appropriate rewards programs46
Designing Appropriate Rewards Programs
  • Open-Book Management
  • Employee Recognition Programs
  • Pay-for-Performance Programs
  • Stock Option Programs