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European Renaissance and Reformation. Chapter 17. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance. Italy’s Advantages Renaissance – revival of art and learning City-States Overseas trading led to the growth of larch cities in northern Italy Merchants and the Medici Looking to Greece and Rome.

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European Renaissance and Reformation


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. European Renaissance and Reformation Chapter 17

    2. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance • Italy’s Advantages • Renaissance – revival of art and learning • City-States • Overseas trading led to the growth of larch cities in northern Italy • Merchants and the Medici • Looking to Greece and Rome

    3. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance • Classical and Worldly Values • Classics Lead to Humanism • An intellectual movement that focused on human potential and achievements • Worldly Pleasures • Secular – worldly rather than spiritual and concerned with the here and now • Patrons of the Arts • Patrons – financial supporters • The Renaissance Man • A man who excelled in many fields • The Renaissance Woman • Know the classics and be charming

    4. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance • The Renaissance Revolutionizes Art • Perspective – technique using three dimensions on a flat surface • Realistic Painting and Sculpture • Leonardo, Renaissance Man • Raphael Advance Realism • Anguissola and Gentilischi

    5. Italy: Birthplace of the Renaissance • Renaissance Writers Change Literature • Vernacular – native language • Petrarch and Boccaccio • Machiavelli Advises Rulers • The Prince • Vittoria Colonna • The Courtier

    6. The Northern Renaissance

    7. The Northern Renaissance • The Northern Renaissance Begins • Artistic Ideas Spread • German Painters • Albrecht Durer • Hans Holbein • Flemish Painters • Jan van Eyck • PiterBruegel

    8. The Northern Renaissance • Northern Writers Try to Reform Society • Christian Humanists • Desiderius Erasmus • Thomas More • Utopia • Women Reformers • Christine de Pizan • The Elizabethan Age • William Shakespeare

    9. The Northern Renaissance • Printing Spreads Renaissance Ideas • Gutenberg Improves the Printing Process • The Legacy of the Renaissance • Changes in the Arts • Secular and religious • Realistic and lifelike • Vernacular • Changes in Society • Available information • Desire for learning

    10. Luther Leads the Reformation • Causes of the Reformation • Spread of secular ideas • Resentment of paying church taxes • Criticisms of the Catholic Church • Extravagant spending on personal pleasure and fighting wars • Early Calls for Reform • John Wycliffe, Jan Hus, Desiderius Erasmus, and Thomas More

    11. Luther Leads the Reformation • Luther Challenges the Church • The 95 Theses • Indulgence – pardon from sin • Reformation – a movement for religious reform • Luther’s Teachings • People could win salvation only by faint in God’s forgiveness. • All Church teachings should be based on the Bible • All people with faith were equal.

    12. Luther Leads the Reformation • The Response to Luther • The Pope’s Threat • Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther • The Emperor’s Opposition • Charles V brought Luther to Worms to stand trial • Edict of Worms – Luther was a heretic and an outlaw • The Peasants’ Revolt • German peasants were encouraged to try to end serfdom by Luther’s teaching on Christian freedom • Germany at War • Protestant princes vs. Catholic princes • Peace of Augsburg

    13. Luther Leads the Reformation • England Becomes Protestant • Henry VIII Wants a Son • No woman had successfully claimed the English throne • Anul – set aside • Catherine was Charles V’s aunt • The Reformation Parliament • Act of Supremacy – Henry would be the head of England’s church • Consequences of Henry’s Changes • Edward was 9 and died at 15 • Mary restored the pope’s power but met heavy resistance • Elizabeth took the throne in 1558 • Elizabeth Restores Protestantism • Anglican Church – Church of England • Elizabeth Faces Other Challenges

    14. The Reformation Continues • Calvin Continues the Reformation • Calvin Formalizes Protestant Ideas • Predestination – the belief that God has known since the beginning of time who will be saved and chooses those to save • Calvin Leads the Reformation in Switzerland • Theocracy – a government controlled by religious leaders • Calvinism Spreads • Presbyterians – followers of the Scottish preacher John Knox

    15. The Reformation Continues • Other Protestant Reformers • The Anabaptists • Believed that persons who had been baptized as children should be rebaptized as adults • Women’s Role in the Reformation

    16. The Reformation Continues • The Catholic Reformation • Catholic Reformation • Ignatius of Loyola • Jesuits – founded schools throughout Europe, convert non-Christians to Catholicism, stop the spread of Protestantism • Reforming Popes – Pope Paul III and Pope Paul IV • Council of Trent

    17. The Reformation Continues • The Legacy of the Reformation • Religious and Social Effects of the Reformation • Political Effects of the Reformation