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CHAPTER 2. THE ELEMENTS OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR: THEORY TREATMENT RESEARCH. THE ROLE OF THEORY IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY. SIX THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES INFLUENTIAL TODAY Biological Psychodynamic Behavioral Cognitive Humanistic-Existential Community-Cultural. THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE.

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chapter 2

CHAPTER 2

THE ELEMENTS OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR:

THEORY

TREATMENT

RESEARCH

the role of theory in abnormal psychology
THE ROLE OF THEORY IN ABNORMAL PSYCHOLOGY

SIX THEORETICAL PERSPECTIVES INFLUENTIAL TODAY

  • Biological
  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Humanistic-Existential
  • Community-Cultural
the biological perspective
THE BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE
  • GENETIC FACTORS
  • THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • THE BRAIN
  • THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM
  • THE NEUROSCIENCE REVOLUTION
  • NEUROPHARMACOLOGY
  • PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY
  • INTEGRATION OF BIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL SYSTEMS
genetic factors
GENETIC FACTORS
  • Chromosomal anomalies
    • Karotype
  • Genes
    • The Human Genome Project
    • DNA and penetrance
    • Heritability
    • Penetrance
    • Behavior Genetics
      • Pedigree Studies
the nervous system1
THE NERVOUS SYSTEM
  • CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Brain
    • Spinal cord
  • PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM
    • Somatic System
    • Autonomic System
  • THE NEURON
    • Axons
    • Dendrites
    • Neurotransmitters
the neuroscience revolution
THE NEUROSCIENCE REVOLUTION
  • Neuroanatomy
  • Neuropathology
  • Neurochemistry
  • Neuropharmacology
  • Neuropsychology
brain imaging
BRAIN IMAGING
  • COMPUTERIZED AXIAL TOMOGRAPHY (CT)
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING (MRI)
  • MAGNETIC RESONANCE SPECTROSCOPY (MRS)
  • SINGLE PHOTON EMISSION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY (SPECT)
  • POSITRON EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY (PT)
the psychodynamic perspective sigmund freud
THE PSYCHODYNAMIC PERSPECTIVE – SIGMUND FREUD
  • THEORY OF PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • THEORY OF PERSONALITY
  • STAGES OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT
  • THE PSYCHIC APPARATUS
  • ANXIETY
  • DEFENSE MECHANISMS
recent approaches to psychoanalysis
RECENT APPROACHES TO PSYCHOANALYSIS
  • Carl Jung
  • Alfred Adler
  • Erik Erikson
  • Ego Psychology
  • Object Relations
  • Self-psychology
the behavaioral perspective
THE BEHAVAIORAL PERSPECTIVE
  • CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
    • Unconditioned stimulus-unconditioned response
    • Conditioned stimulus-conditioned response
  • OPERANT CONDITINING
    • Positive & negative reinforcers
    • Punishment
    • Schedules of reinforcement
  • SOCIAL LEARNING THEORIES
    • Modeling & role playing
the cognitive perspective
THE COGNITIVE PERSPECTIVE
  • MALADAPTIVE THOUGHTS ARE THE CAUSE OF MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR
  • AARON BECK
    • The goal of therapy is to help clients restructure their thinking.
  • Albert Ellis
    • Rational-emotive therapy helps clients question irrational beliefs and modify unrealistic thoughts.
the humanistic existential perspective
THE HUMANISTIC-EXISTENTIAL PERSPECTIVE
  • THE HUMANISTIC VIEW
    • People are striving toward self-actualization.
    • Carol Rogers
  • THE EXISTENTIAL VIEW
    • Emphasis on self-determination, choice, and individual responsibility.
    • Viktor Frankl
the community cultural perspective
THE COMMUNITY-CULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
  • Belief that maladaptive behavior results from inability to cope effectively with stress.
  • Focus on attempts to reduce maladaptive behaviors through preventive measures.
  • Causation theory
  • Social selection theory
  • Social roles
  • Labeling
an integrative approach
AN INTEGRATIVE APPROACH
  • Each perspective is valuable to understanding maladaptive behavior.
  • Different perspectives are more appropriate under differing conditions.
  • Environmental and individual factors often interact to produce maladaptive behavior.
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