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Power System Reliability: Operating Reserves From Responsive Load. Brendan Kirby Oak Ridge National Laboratory 865-576-1768 email@example.com. DOE’s Interests. Bulk power system reliability Reducing energy costs Increase energy efficiency
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Oak Ridge National Laboratory
The National Labs have no commercial interests in any power markets or load response technologies
A contingency is the sudden, unexpected loss of generation or transmission
Ideally, we want the spinning reserves restored and ready to respond again at this point
Exact timing requirements and reserve names vary from region to region
Service definitions often require reserves to be capable of 2 hr sustained response but the power system’s physical requirements are much shorter
The power system does not fundamentally value reserves in “square blocks”
Complements energy management, peak shaving, and price response
Spinning Reserve Opportunities and Revenues Are Still Substantial
At night, when XCEL is pumping up the pond, and they already have their efficient combined cycle plants running at full load, they must run low efficiency peakers as spin. Turning off the pumps would be more reliable, and would save natural gas.
An immediate opportunity
CPS 1&2 are the metrics for minute-to-minute control area balancing
Regulation is the most expensive ancillary service
Load resources in PJM must be: >100kW, available 9am-10pm (4-7hrs/event typical), and achieve full response in 1 hour
Aggregation of many (smaller) individually lower reliability resources still provides higher guaranteed response than fewer (larger) individually higher reliability resources
Some technologies block emergency response overrides
Common Concern: Stability Will Suffer With Reduced Inertia – Here It Improves
WECC Analysis: Loss of Palo Verde 1
Analysis done by Donald Davies, WECC
Responsive LoadMarket Rules Do Not Align Perfectly With Reliability Needs
Market and reliability rules naturally tend to be aligned with the capabilities of the dominant supply technology
Minimum load Minimum run time
10 minute ramp Minimum off time
Start time Inaccurate response
Spinning reserve is part of the real-time capacity requirement
Supplying spinning reserve frees other generation to serve load
Example: If a system requires an additional 50 MW to meet peak requirements and a new CT is economically viable but a cheaper contingency reserve resource is not there is likely a flaw in one of the market rule sets