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IOS110 Introduction to Operating Systems using Windows Session 8 PowerPoint Presentation
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IOS110 Introduction to Operating Systems using Windows Session 8

IOS110 Introduction to Operating Systems using Windows Session 8

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IOS110 Introduction to Operating Systems using Windows Session 8

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  1. IOS110 Introduction to Operating Systems using Windows Session 8 1

  2. Objectives: • Shared Folders • NTFS

  3. Shared Folders

  4. Shared Folders • Shared Folders • Permissions apply to all entries in the folder (as the name implies) • No affect on local users • Files/Folders on FAT/FAT2 partitions can only be secured by Shared Folder permissions only – NTFS permissions cannot be applied • A new shared folder defaults to the group Everyone, with Full Control permissions • The only built-in groups that can share a folder are: • Administrators • Power Users • Permissions that can be granted on a Shared Folder are: • Read (display folder names, files names, file data and attributes. Run executables. Navigate to folders within the Shared Folder • Change – All Read Permissions and: Create folders, add files to folders, change data in files, append data in files • Full Control – All Read and Change permissions and: change file permissions, take ownership of files. • Deny – Used to override permissions already in place. For example, a new employee may have access to a set of folders as they are members of a group. However, until their probation is over, they may be denied accessing some of the folders. • A folder can be shared more than once with different names – this is a means to solve the 8.3 filename restriction on older operating systems • Permissions can be customized 4

  5. Shared Folders • Points to Ponder • Denying permission overrides all other shared permissions that may be applied to a folder • Multiple permissions accumulate • Copying of moving a folder alters the shared permissions associated with that folder • When you share a folder that is located on an NTFS volume, you will still need to consider the NTFS permissions that apply to that folder • When a shared folder and NTFS permissions combine, the most restrictive permissions apply • If a folder resides on an NTFS volume. you will need at least the NTFS Read permission to be able to share that folder at all 5

  6. Shared Folders – Sharing Strategies • Applications • Sharing an application folder on a server is indented to make it available to clients on the network • Install and administer one copy, instead of many copies across the client population • Create a central shared folder to hold all other application folders – permissions can be administered from the top-most application folder • Administrators can be granted Full Control (through Administrative Shared Folders) • After shared has been created – remove Everyone group from the share, and add Users group to the share with Read Permission • If necessary, assign Change Permission to groups such as Power Users – they may need to upgrade software or troubleshoot applications • If necessary, you can create separate shared folders located outside the folder hierarchy fro applications that need customized permissions • When creating permissions, start with the most restrictive set. 6

  7. Shared Folders – Sharing Strategies • Data • Keep data folders separate from application folders • Configure permissions to allow read and write privileges 7

  8. Shared Folders • Connecting to Shared Resources • My Network Places • Windows Explorer • Run Command • Mapping a drive 8

  9. Administrative Shared Folders • Background • When a hierarchy of folders are being shared, they are shared from the root (of the hierarchy) downwards. • Administrative Shares are created at the root of the partition – thus allowing Administrators to manage the PC from the root on down • By default, Administrative Shares are assigned only to the Administrative Group with Full Control • Drives are given the share name of the letter followed by a $: • C$, D$, E$, etc. including the CD-ROM drive • The \WINDOWS folder is given the share name of Admin$ • When the first shared printer is installed, the Administrative Share $Print is created, and points to the directory where printer driver files are stored • Power Users are also given Full Control 9

  10. Shared Folders • Shared Documents Folder • Created when 2 or more local accounts exist • Automatically shared • Used to locally share documents between the local user accounts • When connected to a network, allows the sharing of documents between computers 10

  11. Shared Folders • ForceGuest • For WinXP PCs not connected to a domain • Forces all users logging onto the computer across the network to user the Guest account • No need to have an account on every PC that contains resources you need • Even though you provide a user ID and password, you will only receive Guest-level access – Defaults to a more secure model • Is turned on when WinXP uses the Simple Sharing user interface 11

  12. NTFS

  13. NTFS • Folder Permissions • Read • Write • List Folder Contents • Read and Execute • Modify • Full Control • File Permissions • Read • Write • Read and Execute • Modify • Full Control • Special Access Permissions • 28 variations (14 folder, 14 file) • More granular than the above permissions, and are used to construct the standard permissions: • READ = List Folder/Read Data + Read Attributes + Read Extended Attributes + Read Permissions 13

  14. NTFS • Access Control Lists (ACLs) • Stored with every file and folder on an NTFS volume • ACL is a list of users and groups that have been granted access, as well as the type of access • Access Control Entry (ACE) is a detail record in the ACL • Group Membership and NTFS Permissions • Your permissions are the cumulative permissions of all your group memberships • Is the least restrictive set of permissions • Exception is the Denied permission • File permissions override folder permissions – again the exception is if you are Denied • How File and Folder Permissions Work Together • If there is a conflict between file permissions and folder permissions, the file permissions will apply 14

  15. NTFS • Applying and Modifying NTFS Permissions • WinNT/2K – default was to give Everyone group Full Control on the formatted volume • WinXP – NTFS permissions are applied when you first create a folder: • Administrators • users that own files and folders (Creator Owner) • System group • all get Full Control • Users group • get Read and Execute • To view and modify NTFS permissions you must disable Simple File Sharing • Inheritance of NTFS Permission • Permissions are inherited from parent folder to all is files and to subfolders • Change Permission and Take Ownership Permission • Change Permission: • By default Administrators and file owners can change a file's permissions • The Change permission can be assigned to another user to be able to manage the permissions on files • Take ownership • Can be granted to a user that is taking over the responsibilities of another user • Administrator or original user (Full Control) can grant Take Ownership 15

  16. NTFS • NTFS Permissions and Copying • Same rules as when Copying Compressed Files • NTFS Permissions and Moving • Same rules as when Moving Compressed Files • Modify Permission is required at the source folder so that the file can be deleted • Write permission is required at the destination folder to create the file 16

  17. NTFS • Shared Folder / NTFS permissions • To what objects can you apply these permissions? • Where are these permissions effective • How are multiple permissions accumulated? • When both folder and file permissions are present, which takes precedence? • Shared Folder and NTFS permissions Combined • The most restrictive permissions apply: • (NTFS) + (Shared) = Effective Permission • (Full Control) + (Read) = Read • (Read + Write ) + (Full Control) = Read + Write • (Read) + (Change) = Read • Windows XP provides a tab to view the effective permissions on a file/folder 17

  18. NTFS An Example Payables Users: NTFS:Read & Execute Accountants: NTFS:Write Bob local Users group local Accountant group Bob's effective Permissions = Modify Payables Users: NTFS:Read & Execute Accountants: NTFS:Write Everyone: SF:Read Users: SF:Read Bob's effective Permissions = ? Simple Fix? 18