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Background of the School Counseling Profession. History. Jesse B. Davis - introduced “vocational and moral guidance” as a curriculum into an English course This was the first systematic guidance program in public schools . History. Frank Parsons - the “Father of Guidance”

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  • Jesse B. Davis - introduced “vocational and moral guidance” as a curriculum into an English course
  • This was the first systematic guidance program in public schools
  • Frank Parsons - the “Father of Guidance”
  • His work had significant impact on the vocational guidance movement
  • 1909 - Wrote the book, Choosing a Vocation, which offered a method to match a person’s personal characteristics with an occupation (Trait and Factor Approach)
  • The work of Jesse Davis, Eli Weaver, and Frank Parsons and a host of other pioneers created momentum for the development of a school counseling profession.
  • During the 1920s-1940s, many events occurred that gave clarity and direction to this emerging profession.
  • World War I - gave more reason for testing individuals
  • The term “counselor” rarely heard prior to the depression, was now a part of the vocabulary (e.g. Freud). Prior to this time, the term “guidance” was used
  • World War II - and it’s aftermath created a greater emphasis on “psychological testing” that directly influenced school guidance
  • World War II - government requested assistance from counselors for screening, selecting military and industrial specialist
  • 1930s - the first theory of guidance was introduced. E. G. Williamson’s Trait and Factor theory.
  • This was known as directive or counselor-centered
  • 1946 - George Barden Act - legislation that provided funds to develop and support guidance and counseling activities in schools and other settings
  • This was the first timeschool counselors and state and local supervisors received resources, leadership and financial support from the government
  • 1957 - Sputnik - first earth satellite that was launched by the Soviet Union
  • Sputnik was the “lift-off” and “orbit” for counseling & guidance in the US
  • 1958 - Nat’l Defense Ed. Act (NDEA)- provided funding to United States education institutions at all levels. The act authorized funding for four years, increasing funding per year
  • Part of the NDEA focused on:
  • 1. Providing funds to help states establish and maintain school counseling, testing, guidance activities
  • 2. Authorized the establishment of counseling institutions and training programs in colleges and universities
  • 1962 - Wrenn’s book, The Counselor in a Changing World -solidified the goals of school counseling
  • 1965 - Elem & Secondary Education Act - provided funding to improve educational opportunities of low-income families
  • 1960-70s - Collaboration with teachers
  • 1974 - PL 94-142 (Education of All Handicapped Children Act; IDEA)
  • 1997 - National Standards for School Counseling Programs is published
  • Late 1990s-00s - Transforming school counseling
school guidance
School Guidance
  • (1900 - 1920) - Occupational Selection and Placement was emphasized
  • (1930 -1960) - School Adjustment
  • (1960- present) - Personal Development
defining school counseling
Defining School Counseling

A profession that focuses on the relations and interactions between students and their school environment with the expressed purpose of reducing the effect of environmental and institutional barriers that impede student academic success.

The Education Trust

the goal of school counseling
The Goal of School Counseling
  • To remove barriers which impede academic and life success
focus of barrier removal
Focus of Barrier Removal
  • Student-focused
  • System-focused
student focused school counseling

Academic Development

Career Development

Personal/Social Development

student focused school counseling19

The help all students receive from parents, teachers, counselors, community members and others to assist with educational and career development.


The help some students receive from credentialed professionals to overcome personal and social problems that interfere with learning.

Student-Focused School Counseling:
guiding all kids systemic school counseling


For ALL Kids



Aligned with

Achievement Goals


guiding all kids systemic school counseling connecting to the mission of the school
Guiding All Kids: Systemic School CounselingConnecting to the Mission of the School

What are the knowledge and skills our students need, in the areas of academic, career, & personal/social development, in order to reach our vision of student success (school’s mission)?

asca standards local indicators
ASCA Standards + Local Indicators

ASCA National Standards and Local Indicators

Academic Development

All 4th graders will describe their personal learning style.

All 8th graders will develop a 4-yr high school course plan.

All 10th graders will describe postsecondary education options.

Career Development

All 5th graders will describe their career interest areas.

All 8th graders will describe the career majors offered at the HS.

All 9th graders will conduct an information interview.

Personal-Social Development

All 3th graders will demonstrate a conflict mediation skills.

All 6th graders will demonstrate anger management techniques.

All 11th graders will demonstrate consensus building skills.

guiding all kids systemic school counseling continuum of school counseling activities
Guiding All Kids: Systemic School CounselingContinuum of School Counseling Activities


Ask “Hard” Questions

Gather & Present Data

Task Group Facilitation

System Focused



Classroom Guidance

Small Group Interventions

Individual Interventions


Student Focused


leadership activities

Create an environment supportive of high achievement for all students

leadership activities26


Promoting high achievement for all students

Promoting positive relationships

Identifying students who are “left behind”

Using data to spur change

Asking the “hard questions”

Teaming and collaborating to create the

programs, services, policies, etc.

needed so no student is left behind

leadership activities27

Leadership for School Improvement

Serving on school improvement teams

Facilitating school improvement teams

Collaborating with teachers to help all students learn

Providing in-service programs for teachers:

Learning styles

Career interest inventories

Labor market trends

Conflict management

asca ethical standards
ASCA Ethical Standards
  • Responsibilities
    • To students
    • To parents
    • To colleagues and professional associates
    • To the school and community
    • To self
    • To the profession

(Cobia & Henderson)

  • 1. Professional identity is an important issue for school counselors. If you were hired by a school tomorrow as its new counselor, what five actions would you take to begin establishing a professional identity? Discuss and compare your actions with a group of your classmates.
Discuss factors and events that influenced your decision to enter or consider the counseling profession
  • Select and write down any historic leader’s name. In 15 minutes, describe how the leader would have benefited from counseling at some particular point of his/her career.
  • Review the ASCA role statement (see Appendix A in Cobia & Henderson) and identify any aspects that are different from the previous perceptions of a school counselor’s role. Reflecting on these differences, speculate about how you came to hold these beliefs. How might your awareness of these preconceptions influence your training experiences?