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Pesticide Basics Uses, Exposures, Types and Acute Effects. Did you know? . 5 million at risk population (U.S. EPA, 1992) 250-500 physician-diagnosed cases occur per 100,000 agricultural workers (Blondell, 1997). Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are especially at high risk

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did you know
Did you know?
  • 5 million at risk population (U.S. EPA, 1992)
  • 250-500 physician-diagnosed cases occur per 100,000 agricultural workers (Blondell, 1997).
  • Migrant and seasonal farmworkers are especially at high risk
  • 84% of American households used pesticides, most commonly insecticides (Whitmore et al, 1992)
  • Homeowners use 5-10 lbs/ acre/yr on their lawns and gardens, many x greater than farmers apply to corn and soybean fields (Robinson et al, 1994).
did you know3
Did you know?
  • Non -agricultural pesticide exposure as disinfectants widespread: (e.g., pine oil cleaners, bathroom cleaning products, and cleaning materials for swimming pools).
  • Non-Ag Sector a concern = pest control, nurseries, greenhouses, and landscaping.
  • The medical profession uses disinfectants to sanitize and sterilize surfaces and instruments.
  • Organophosphate and pyrethroid insecticides most implicated for poisonings.
  • Water chlorination is one of the largest (by tonnage) uses of pesticides.
where are pesticides used
Where Are Pesticides Used?
  • Forests to control insects and under-story vegetation;
  • Landscapes, parks, and recreational areas to control weeds, insects, and disease pests;
  • Rights-of-way along railroads and under electric wires to control vegetation;
  • Houses, schools, and commercial and office buildings to control insects, rodents, and fungi;
  • Boat hulls to control fouling organisms;
where are pesticides used5
Where Are Pesticides Used?
  • Aquatic sites to control mosquitoes and weeds
  • Wood products to control wood-destroying organisms
  • Food preparation areas to control insects and rodents
  • Human skin to kill or repel insects
  • Household pets to control fleas and ticks
  • Livestock to control insects and other pests.
non occupational pesticide encounters
Non Occupational Pesticide Encounters
  • Accidental or intentional ingestion
  • Food and water residues
  • Contaminated clothing
  • Treated wood/structures
  • Residues on animals/carpets
  • Garden residues
  • Termite control
  • Hazardous waste sites/spills
agriculture pesticide applications
Agriculture Pesticide Applications

Boom sprayer

Aerial

Enclosed cab

Backpack wand

Air blast sprayer

agriculture jobs
Agriculture Jobs

Orchard thinner

Mixer loader

Picker

Flagger

professions exposed to pesticides
Aerial equipment maintenance

Agronomists

Building maintenance work

Emergency responders

Entomologists

Firefighters

Forestry workers

Formulating end product

Greenhouse- nursery workers

Hazardous waste workers

Landscapers

Livestock dippers and veterinarians

Marina workers

Medical personnel

Park workers

Plant pathologists

Research chemistry

Sewer work

Storage/warehouse work

Structural application

Transporting pesticides

Treating contaminated workers

Vector control workers

Wood treatment workers

Work on highway or railroad rights of way

Professions Exposed to Pesticides
key household safety points
Key Household Safety Points

“ Partly Trained Gorillas Always Run Down Streets Doing Cartwheels”

  • Proximity
  • Take home
  • Garden
  • Animals
  • Recycle
  • Decant
  • Storage
  • Disposal
  • Child play/daycare
routes of exposure
ROUTES OF EXPOSURE

OP’s are readily absorbed:

Across the SKIN with skin contact

In the lungs with INHALATION of pesticide contaminated air/dust

In the gut by INGESTION of pesticide residue on food/dirt/dust

Source: EPA Protect Yourself from Pesticides-Guide of Agricultural Workers

risk factors for occupational pesticide exposures
Risk Factors for Occupational Pesticide Exposures
  • Concentration of commercial preparations > than diluted final product = greater risk
  • AG workers highest exposure risk in mixing, loading, applying, and flagging.

Source: H Murphy - Cambodia

occupational risk factors
Occupational Risk Factors
  • Pregnant Women: 1st trimester
  • Field workers entering sprayed field before re-entry interval [REI]
  • Residuals on skin and clothes
    • How to remove PPE
    • How to clean PPE
    • Showering after use
evidence agriculture risk factors
Evidence? Agriculture Risk Factors
  • Indonesia:
    • Cocktail mixture of multiple products
    • Spray frequency
    • Skin contact > wet clothing
    • Use of toxic products (1a/Ib, II)
  • Washington state:
    • Protective: Chemically resistant boots
    • Protective: Full face respirators
    • Risk: Mixing and loading pesticides
    • Risk: Cleaning equipment
    • Protective: Using a workplace locker for PPE

Source: H Murphy - Indonesia

preventing pesticide illness
Preventing Pesticide Illness

Non-chemical Alternatives

Primary

Engineering Controls

Secondary

Personal

Protective Equipment

[PPE]

Tertiary

It’s the law

risk factors for pesticide exposures at home
Risk factors for pesticide exposures at home
  • Migrant families > risk
  • Children’s vulnerability
  • Location near fields
  • Take home pathway
  • Pesticide storage and use in homes
  • Multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS)
migrant families
Migrant Families
  • Living conditions: quality and location
  • Communication: language and literacy
  • Immigration status
  • Access to health care
  • Diet
unintentional accidental
Unintentional (Accidental)
  • GIabsorption from accidental ingestion = acute poisonings
  • Respiratory and dermal absorption from surrounding environment
  • Hand to mouth activity in children
occupational
Occupational
  • Dermal is most important
  • Inhalation is a common pathway
  • Ingestion less common but can occur if not use gloves or poor hygiene
intentional suicide homicide abuse
Intentional (Suicide/Homicide/Abuse)
  • Ingestion is primary pathway
  • Inhalation is another pathway, although primary agents of abuse in this manner are non-pesticide chemicals (aromatic solvents).
slide22

Washington State Source of Case Reports

2002 and 2003 Combined

Workman’s Comp

Dept of AG

Poison Control

Source: 2004 Pesticide Incident Reporting and Tracking (PIRT) Annual Report

washington state pesticide events 2003

67%

Washington State Pesticide Events - 2003

Source: 2004 Pesticide Incident Reporting and Tracking (PIRT) Annual Report

agricultural vs non agricultural cases of poisonings
Agricultural vs. Non-Agricultural Cases of Poisonings

Source: 2004 Pesticide Incident Reporting and Tracking (PIRT) Annual Report

occupational versus non occupational cases of pesticide poisoning
Occupational versus Non-Occupational Cases of Pesticide Poisoning

Source: 2004 Pesticide Incident Reporting and Tracking (PIRT) Annual Report

proportion of poisonings
Proportion of Poisonings

Ranked 8th Cause of Poisonings = 102,754 cases in 2005 (4.2%)

Adults

Children

Source: Watson WA. 2004 Annual Report of the American Association of Poison Control Centers Toxic Exposure Surveillance System

us intentional vs accidental
US: Intentional vs. Accidental

Accidental

84%

Suicide

8%

6 suicide attempts used pesticides out of 196,164

pesticide
Pesticide

‘cide = to kill

Disinfectants

Fumigants

pesticide chemical families grouping based on similarities
Pesticide Chemical Families-grouping based on similarities-
  • Similar chemically (similar structure)
  • Attacks pests in a similar way (toxicity)
  • Common treatment + antidote

Pyrethroid

PY

Organophosphate

OP

Carbamate

C

Organochlorine

OC

Chlorophenoxy

Paraquat

Diquat

pesticide sample label
Pesticide Sample Label
  • Type of pesticide (used for?)
  • Company name
  • Brand name
  • Common/generic name (active ingredient)
  • Chemical family (? atropine under 1st aid)
  • Signal word (hazard level)
slide34

Exercise: Classifying Pesticides

Pesticide Labels

Bayer

Temik

Aldicarb

Insecticide

Carbamate

Danger-poison

la

Verdicon

Sevin

Carbaryl

Insecticide

Carbamate

Caution

ll

UCP Alliance

Thiodan

Endosulfan

Insecticide

Organochlorine

Warning

ll

Bayer

Guthion

Azinophos methyl

Insecticide

Organophospate

Danger-poison

lb

Dow

Dursban

Chlorpyrifos

Insecticide

Warning

ll

Organophospate

Syngenta

Gramoxone

Paraquat

Herbicide

Paraquat

Danger-poison

ll

Helena

Weed Rhap

2, 4-D

Herbicide

Chlorophenoxy

Danger-poison

ll

DuPont

Asana

Esfenverlate

Insecticide

Pyrethroid

Warning

lV

Bayer

Captan

Captan

Fungicide

Danger-poison

II

Max

Roundup

Glyphosate

Herbicide

Caution

U-IV

Fungicide

Mancozeb

Dow

U-IV

Caution

Dithane

Cerexagri-Nisso

III

Ziram

Fungicide

Ziram

Danger

slide35

How toxic is it?

Source: Richards, Kerry Penn State University Extension Service

ld 50
LD50

Lethal dose = Amount of chemical it takes to kill 50% of an experimental population

slide39

*

*

DANGER/POISON = extremely toxic by ingestion

DANGER = extremely toxic high potential for skin and eye irritation

Adapted from Richards, Kerry Penn State University Extension Service

insecticides
Insecticides
  • ChE Inhibitors:
    • Organophosphates
    • n-methyl carbamates
  • Pyrethroids
    • Pyrethrins (ocloresin extract of chrysanthemum)
    • Pyrethroids (the synthetic derivative)
  • Organochlorines (e.g. DDT)
  • DEET
  • Boric Acid
  • Fluorides
  • Nicotine
  • Arsenicals
herbicides
Herbicides
  • Chlorophenoxy herbicides (e.g. 2-4D)
  • Paraquat and diquat
  • Pentachlorophenol and dinitrocresol (wood preservatives)
  • Copper chromium arsenate ( decks, fences, and children’s wood playground sets – d/c 2003)
fungicides
Fungicides
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Thiram
  • Maneb
  • Methylmercury compounds
fumigants
Fumigants
  • Cyanide,
  • 1, 3-dichloropropane
  • Metam sodium
  • Methyl bromide
  • Naphthalene
  • Phosphine gas (from aluminum phosphide)
rodenticides
Rodenticides
  • Warfarin-related compounds:
    • Warfarin
    • Coumarins
    • Brodifacoum
    • Difenacoum (so-called “super warfarins”)
  • Others:
    • Thallium
    • Zinc phosphide
    • Sodium fluoroacetate
disinfectants
Disinfectants
  • Agents used for sanitization and sterilization in the home and hospital
  • Registered as pesticides by the U.S. EPA
  • Examples include
    • Alcohols
    • Chlorhexidine
    • Hypochlorites
    • Iodines
    • Phenols
    • Pine oil
pyrethroids
Pyrethroids

Pyrethroids: are irritants to the eyes, skin and respiratory tract. The symptoms last from 1-2 hours. Systemic toxicity from inhalation or dermal absorption is low.

Cyno-pyrethroids: fenverlate, flucythrinate, fluvalinate cypermethrine, deltapermethrin,

organochlorines 1 0 48 0 lipophylic
The nerves stimulating glands are not affected so you will NOT see:

excessive salivation

excessive sweating

excessive eye tearing

(or over-stimulation of small muscles like)

twitching eyelids

CNS Effects

Muscle Weakness

Dizziness

Headache

Numbness

Nausea/vomiting

LOC

Seizures

Tremors

Ataxia

Anxiety/restlessness

Confusion

Organochlorines: 10 - 480lipophylic
paraquat
Paraquat

Paraquat is very toxic to the skin and mucous membranes. Particles are too large to get deep into the lungs*, but once in the blood it collects in the lungs. If ingested high case fatality rate.

deet diethyltoluamide
DEETDIETHYLTOLUAMIDE
  • Few toxic cases - given the widespread use
  • Toxic if ingested
  • Children: toxic encephalopathy w/ heavy use on large surface area on kids (+ ETOH - isopropyl or ethyl)
  • Dermal problems: tingling, irritation, desquamination, contact dermatitis, exacerbate pre-existing skin dz
  • Kids: use 5-6.5% formulations
boric acid ants cockroaches in residences
Boric AcidAnts, Cockroaches in Residences

“broiled lobster appearance”

boric acid
Boric Acid

Respiratory tract irritant

Moderate skin irritant

Historic antibacterial: poisonings from burn compresses, diaper powder, irrigation solutions

  • Targets: GI tract, skin, vasculature, brain
  • Chronic ingestion more toxic than acute (13 ½ life)
  • Absorption: via gut and abraded skin
fluorides
Fluorides
  • Transformed in stomach to corrosive hydrofluoric acid:thirst, nausea-vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain
  • Fluoride ion reduces extra-cellular fluid concentrations of Ca+ and Mg hypocalcemic tetany
  • Cardiac arrythmias- shock  2ndary to fluid/electrolyte imbalances, hypokalemia and the fluoride itself
  • CNS  H.A. muscle weakness, stupor, seizures and coma
focus on op s
Focus on OP’s
  • Children at risk for neurodevelopmental problems
  • Most commonly used insecticide in agriculture
  • Common cause of poisoning
slide57

nerve cell

After electrical nerve impulse transmission is completed, the body produces cholinesterase.

Cholinesterase breaks up acetylcholine into acetate and choline.

Electrical nerve impulse coming from nerve cell stimulates the body to produce acetylcholine.

Acetylcholine acts as a bridge transmitting the electrical charge to the muscle cell.

Muscles and glands contract.

acetate

choline

muscle cell

Normal Electrical Nerve Impulse Transmission

Once acetylcholine is broken, it can no longer transmit electrical nerve impulses.

Electrical nerve impulses stop and the muscles and glands are quiet

slide58

Organophosphate-Carbamate Disruption of Electrical Nerve Impulse Transmission Therapeutic Effect of Atropine

nerve cell

Electrical nerve impulse

acetate

choline

cholinesterase

organophosphate

atropine

muscle cell

If an organophosphate (Op) or carbamate is present, they bind with cholinesterase. [This is an irreversible effect with an Op but not with a carbamate]

The bound cholinesterase cannot penetrate acetylcholine to break it up.

The body continues to produce acetylcholine unimpeded.

This results in a build up of acetylcholine with continuous electrical nerve impulse transmission and over stimulation of muscle and glands.

Atropine relieves the over stimulation of the muscles and glands by reducing the amounts of acetylcholine.

The effect only lasts 15 minutes. Therefore the dose must be repeated until the organophosphate binding effect has worn off.

signs and symptoms in adults
Signs and Symptoms in Adults

Exercise: Body Mapping

Heart

Eye

CNS

Lungs

Glands

Muscle

GI

  • Fatigue
  • Dizziness
  • Headache
  • Tremors
  • Ataxia
  • Seizures
  • LOC
  • Coma
  • Insomnia
  • Mental Δ

Tightness

Wheezing

Cough

Rhinorrhea

Weakness Cramps

Fasciculations

Tachy

Brady

 BP

↓ BP

Abd. cramps

Nausea

Vomiting

Diarrhea

Drooling

Sweating

Tearing

signs of pesticide poisoning in children
Signs of Pesticide Poisoning in Children

Seizures

Lethargic sleepy

Coma

Can be confused with the flu