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Pollution takes its toll on marathon field. Twenty-two people were sent to hospital yesterday, two remaining in critical condition last night, after taking part in Hong Kong's biggest marathon amid the worst air pollution since September.

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pollution takes its toll on marathon field
Pollution takes its toll on marathon field
  • Twenty-two people were sent to hospital yesterday, two remaining in critical condition last night, after taking part in Hong Kong's biggest marathon amid the worst air pollution since September.
  • Many of the record 40,000 runners complained the "choking" air affected their performance in the 10th annual Standard Chartered Hong Kong Marathon, half-marathon and 10km events.

Biodiversity Loss from

wetlands destruction
Wetlands Destruction

Biodiversity Loss from


Toxic, Carcinogenic, Endocrine, Immune System Disrupting…

nutrient sewage fertilizers overload
Nutrient (sewage, fertilizers) Overload

Images showing the changes in chlorophyll concentration during the period of red tide.

Red tide in Hong Kong

stratospheric ozone depletion
Stratospheric Ozone Depletion

October 1999 (average)

Historically, the Antarctic ozone hole is largest during October. This image shows the data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) Earth Probe, for the month of October 1999.

September 17th 2001

Satellite data show the area of the 2001 Antarctic ozone hole peaked at a size roughly equal to that of recent years about the same area as North America. Researchers have observed a levelling-off of the hole size and predict a slow recovery.

carrying capacity
Carrying Capacity
  • The maximum number of individuals of a species that can be sustained by an environment without decreasing the capacity of the environment to sustain that same amount in the future.
compartments and pollution extraction
Compartments and Pollution/Extraction
  • Air: emissions, GHGs, ozone loss, abrading, offgassing, noise
  • Water: Nutrient BOD, chemical emissions, pharmaceuticals, underground leaking, air fallout
  • Land: landfill, hazardous and nuclear waste, abrading, soil erosion
  • Biosphere (life): habitat destruction, alien species, exploitation, global warming, pollutants
hk alien species
HK Alien Species

Mikania micrantha

Fire Ants

Water Dragon

  • Human Health
  • Human Wealth
  • Nature’s Health
human health
Human Health
  • Toxins: heavy metals,organic compounds, particulates, oxides.
  • Carcinogens
  • Radiation
  • Noise
  • UV radiation
  • Global warming>>disease increase
  • Stress
human wealth
Human Wealth
  • Resource depletion: renewable and nonrenewable resources
  • Environmental degradation: ecosystem services
  • Economic and social disruptions
nature s health
Nature’s Health
  • Pollution: birth rate, death rate, distribution, growth rate abundance
  • Loss of space and habitat destruction
  • Biogeochemical balance upset
  • Ecological balance upset by biodiversity loss
interrelationships of environmental problems
Interrelationships Of Environmental Problems
  • Sources, sinks and flows
  • Point and area origins
  • Space and time dimensions
  • Synergistic and cumulative affects
environmental impact of petrochemical industry
Environmental impact of petrochemical industry
  • Air: noxious and toxic emissions from refining, processing plants
  • Water: factory emissions to water bodies
  • Land: landfill disposal of waste solids & sludge; accidental spills during transport & storage
  • Human:toxicity and disruption of lifestyle
environmental impact of metal industry
Environmental impact of metal industry
  • Air: particulate, gas emissions during forging, working, fabrication
  • Water: discharge of pickling liquors & other waste disposal; heavy metals
  • Land: slag, waste products from processing
  • Human:toxicity
environmental impact of mining industry
Environmental impact of mining industry
  • Air: particulates from surface mining & transportation; noxious & toxic fumes from smelting
  • Water: runoff from mines and waste disposal
  • Land: dumping of tailings & processed wastes; disruption of agriculture, forestry, recreation
  • Human: heavy metals, particulates
environmental impact of food industry
Environmental impact of food industry
  • Air: noxious fumes from food processing
  • Water: sewage with high organic content
  • Land: uncomposted organics and other wastes to landfill
environmental impact of agriculture industry
Environmental impact of agriculture industry
  • Air: drift of agricultural chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, fungicides, fertilizers), pollen, & dust
  • Water: runoff of agrochemicals to surface waters; percolation to groundwater; silting of water
  • Land: erosion, depletion of organic material & organisms
  • Human: toxicity of chemical; loss of soil
environmental impact of pulp paper industry
Environmental impact of pulp & paper industry
  • Air: noxious fumes
  • Water: emissions of mercury, chlorines, organics; silt from deforestation; loss of habitat
  • Land: destruction of habitat by clear-cutting; erosion
  • Human: mercury contaminated seafood
wastes generated from manufacture of common products
Wastes generated from manufacture of common products
  • Plastics: organic chlorine compounds, organic solvents
  • Pesticides; organic chlorine compounds, organic phosphate compounds
  • Medicines: organic solvents and residues, heavy metals
  • Paints: heavy metals, pigments, solvents, organic residues
  • Petroleum products: oil, phenols, organic compounds, heavy metals, ammonia, salt acids, caustics
  • Metals: heavy metals, fluorides, cyanides, acid and alkaline cleaners, solvents, pigments, abrasives, plating salts, oils, phenols
  • Leather; heavy metals, organic solvents
  • Textiles: heavy metals, dyes, organic chlorine, compounds, solvents.

Product, Material, & Energy Flow in an Industry







Social Infrastructure:

Gov’t, industry assoc.s,

NGOs, etc.




Physical Infrastructure:

roads, sewers, land use, electricity, etc.





Material & Energy Inputs

Pollution Outputs