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Seminar XII. Developing Interpersonal Rapport. Al Estes. What Constitutes Exemplary Teaching?. Intellectual Excitement Technical Expertise Organization Clarity of Communication Engaging Presentation Enthusiasm Interpersonal Rapport Interest in students as individuals

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Seminar XII




Al Estes

What Constitutes Exemplary Teaching?
  • Intellectual Excitement
    • Technical Expertise
    • Organization
    • Clarity of Communication
    • Engaging Presentation
    • Enthusiasm
  • Interpersonal Rapport
    • Interest in students as individuals
    • Interest in students’ learning
    • Receptive to students’ preferences about assignments and policies


Chapter 1

lowman s two dimensional model of teaching






Lowman’s Two-Dimensional Model of Teaching


6. Intellectual


8. Exemplary


9. Complete




3. Adequate

5. Competent

7. Exemplary


1. Inadequate

2. Marginal


ASCE ExCEEd Teaching Workshop 2010

the exceed model
The “ExCEEd Model”

Structured organization

Based on learning objectives

Appropriate to the subject matter

Varied, to appeal to different learning styles

Engaging presentation

Clear written and verbal communication

High degree of contact with students

Physical models & demonstrations


Positive rapport with students

Frequent assessment of student learning

Classroom assessment techniques

Out-of-class homework and projects

Appropriate use of technology






developing interpersonal rapport
Developing Interpersonal Rapport
  • Seminar VII: Teacher Performer
  • Seminar VIII: Questioning
  • Seminar IX: Teaching Assessment -- CATs
  • Seminar X: Non-verbal Communication
classroom assessment technique 1
Classroom Assessment Technique #1

Background Knowledge


2010 ASCE ExCEEd Teaching Workshop Movie Preferences

Estes Scale






Max Testosterone,

Violent, War, Sports,

Sophomoric Humor


Weepy, Cute,

Two-hanky love


5: Tommy Boy, Old School

4: The Village, Braveheart, Last Samuri, Dark Knight, Shawshank Redemption*2,

Die Hard, Saving Private Ryan, Blackhawk Down, Big Lebowski, The Matrix, The

Godfather, Grand Torino

3: Harry Potter

2: What the Bleep Do We Know?, The Incridbles, Casablanca, Dead Poet’s


1: Gone With the Wind*2, Love Actually, Any Pixar Movie


Group Activity

How can we develop interpersonal rapport

with students:

(1) in the classroom?

(2) outside the classroom?

Study Guide, page 55

get to know your students
Developing Interpersonal Rapport:Get to Know Your Students
  • Learn students’ names:
    • As early as possible in the course
    • Learn what they want to be called
    • Ask them questions
get to know your students1
Developing Interpersonal Rapport:Get to Know Your Students
  • Use “student data sheets” to familiarize with:
    • Home town
    • Academic interests
    • Extracurricular activities
  • Attend athletic events and extracurricular activities.
  • Participate in ASCE student chapter activities.
be available
Developing Interpersonal Rapport:Be Available
  • Come to class early, and stay after class.
  • Encourage students to seek assistance outside of class:
    • Always make time to see a student who asks for help.
    • Seem eager to see a student, even if you are not.
    • Don’t be punitive.
  • Be accessible:
    • Use e-mail or IM or Facebook or Twitter.
    • Consider providing your home phone number.
be fair flexible and responsive
Developing Interpersonal Rapport:Be Fair, Flexible, and Responsive
  • Ensure that grading is as fair and objective as possible.
  • Solicit feedback, and respond to it.
  • Demonstrate flexibility on the scope and timing of requirements, when appropriate.
establish a positive classroom environment
Developing Interpersonal Rapport:Establish a Positive Classroom Environment
  • Have a positive disposition.
  • Let your own personality show through.
  • Use humor...carefully.
  • Maintain contact with your students.
  • Avoid cynicism about students.
lowman says
Lowman says...

“The subtleties of a

college teacher’s behavior

toward a class

throughout the term

do more to produce

optimal class atmosphere

than sweeping structural changes

at the beginning.”

lowman also says
Lowman also says...

“Outstanding teachers

have often expressed the sentiment

that to become

a great classroom instructor,

one must genuinely like

college-age students

and identify with their interests,

both serious and foolish.”

the mann studies 1970

Chapter 2

Can be enhanced by


interpersonal relationships

The Mann Studies (1970)

“The Natural History

of the College Classroom”

  • Initial optimism and positive expectations
  • Sharp drop in satisfaction and rise in anxiety (4 - 6 weeks into the term)
  • Period of increasing satisfaction and capacity for independent work
  • Last lesson
student types mann 1970

Chapter 3

Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Compliant students
  • Anxious-dependent students
  • Discouraged workers
  • Independent students
  • Heroes
  • Snipers
  • Attention-seeking students
  • Silent students
student types mann 19701
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Compliant Students (10%)
    • Teacher-dependent, conventional, task-oriented.
    • Content to learn what the instructor wants them to know.
    • Speak in class only to agree with the instructor or ask for clarification.
    • Often prefer lecture to discussion.
    • Usually do not show independence or creativity.
  • Initially accept their dependency;
  • gradually encourage them to be more independent.
student types mann 19702
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Anxious-Dependent Students (26%)
    • Want to learn exactly what the teacher wants them to know.
    • Excessively concerned about grades.
    • Expect trick questions and unfair grading.
    • Come to exams looking frazzled and stay until the last possible minute.
    • Work is frequently unimaginative or erratic.
    • Seek simple right or wrong answers.
  • Don’t add to the anxiety by rejecting requests for
  • “the right answer.” Suggest a broader range of options.
student types mann 19703
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Discouraged Workers (4%)
    • Depressed and fatalistic toward their education.
    • See themselves as having little control over their learning.
    • Overworked burn-outs—no longer find learning pleasurable.
    • Often older students who have returned to school.
  • Compliment their work.
  • Provide face-to-face encouragement.
  • Acknowledge their low morale, and
  • demonstrate a desire to get to know them better.
student types mann 19704
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Independent Students (12%)
    • Ideal, mature, learning-oriented students.
    • Comfortable with formulating their own thinking on a requirement.
    • High-quality participators.
    • Make friends with instructors and identify with them.
  • Acknowledge their independence.
  • Encourage them to go beyond what is expected
  • of others.
student types mann 19705
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Heroes (10%)
    • Resemble independents—prefer independent or creative work and identify with the teacher, but...
    • Overly concerned with having the teacher notice what great students they are.
    • Active in class discussions; sometimes argumentative.
    • Frequently stop by after the first class to express their interest one-on-one.
    • Erratic optimistic underachievers who fail to deliver on their promise.
  • Channel their energies into well-structured requirements.
  • Giving them independence almost never improves performance.
student types mann 19706
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Snipers (9%)
    • A hero who is hostile toward the teacher.
    • Have high self-image, but little hope that the world will recognize their genius.
    • Sit in the back of the room and make cutting comments.
    • Retreat quickly when questioned or challenged.
  • Control your own hostility toward them. Ignore or, better,
  • respond enthusiastically, emphasizing the positive and
  • ignoring the negative. Attempt to develop a
  • positive personal relationship as the course develops.
student types mann 19707
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Attention-Seeking Students (11%)
    • Come to class to socialize with instructor and other students.
    • Social needs predominate over intellectual ones.
    • Like to organize group study sessions and parties.
    • Can be easily influenced by others.
    • Capable of good work, if it is clear that they must work hard to be well thought of.
  • Give ample attention early, then gradually withdraw it,
  • restricting it to praise for high-quality academic work.
student types mann 19708
Student Types (Mann, 1970)
  • Silent Students (20%)
    • Make so few comments they cannot be classified into another group.
    • Acutely aware of how the instructor behaves toward them.
    • Afraid that the instructor does not think highly of them or their work.
  • Don’t ignore!
  • Make eye contact; attempt to draw them out
  • in a non-threatening way. If they are struggling academically,
  • take the initiative to suggest additional assistance.
student types so what
Student Types:So What?
  • Students’ emotional development varies widely within a given class.
  • You should respond to each student type in a different manner.
  • You can’t do that unless you know your students and understand their personalities.
Student Types (McKeachie, 1992)
  • Angry, aggressive student
  • Attention-seekers and students who dominate discussion
  • Silent students
  • Inattentive students
  • Unprepared students
  • Flatterer, disciple, or con-man (or woman)
  • Discouraged, ready to give-up
  • Students with excuses
  • Students who want the TRUTH


Seminar XII