Organization and Administration of Educational Systems EdL. Leadership 730 Karen Gibson Ph. D. By Silvia Campazzo Lyman W. Porter, Ph. D. & Edward E. Lawler, III, Ph. D.
Lyman Porter Professor Emeritus, Organization & StrategyThe Paul Merage School of BusinessUniversity of California, IrvineIrvine, CA 92697-3125Research:Dr. Porter's research focuses on the fundamental aspects of employee-organizational relationships.
Edward E. Lawler III Edward E. Lawler III is Distinguished Professor of Business at the University of Southern California Marshall School of Business and founder and director of the University's Center for Effective Organizations (CEO). Watch a video of Ed Lawler discussing his career. http://www.edwardlawler.com/bio_video.htm
This topic is pertinent both to social scientists concerned with behavior in the work situation and to those individuals who occupy positions in the management of organizations. It concerns the relationship between the job attitudes of managers and their on-the-job performance. (Managerial Attitudes, Preface) Topic: Managerial Effectiviness
One of the most widely accepted explanations of motivation has been propounded by Victor Vroom. His theory is commonly known as Expectancy Theory. He argues that: the strength of a tendency to act in a specific way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of that outcome to the individual. The theory focuses on three things : Efforts and performance relationship Performance and reward relationship Rewards and personal goal relationship Vroom’s Valence x Expectancy theory
Motivation Actions Results Satisfaction in form of rewards Theory of Expectancy
L. Porter and E. Lawler developed a more complete version of motivation dependent upon expectancy theory. They developed a model --conceptual scheme to guide their thinking-- relating effort, performance, satisfaction, and other key variables. This model led them to ‘some testable hypotheses.’ The theoretical Model
Value of Reward: refers to how attractive or desire is a potential outcome of an individual’s behavior in the work situation. Effort- Reward Probability: refers to an individual’s perception of whether differential rewards are based on differential amounts of effort on his part in the work situation. Effort: refers to the energy expended to perform some task, but does not necessarily correlate with how successfully the task is carried out. Abilities and Traits: characteristics of individuals that remain largely unaffected by momentary changes in their environmental situation. Role Perceptions: deal with the way in which the individual defines his job– the types of effort he believes are essential to effective job performance. Performance: refers to a person’s accomplishment on tasks that comprise his job. Rewards: are desirables states of affairs that a person receives from either his own thinking or the action of others. Perceived Equitable Rewards: are defined as the amount of rewards that a person feels is fair. Satisfaction: is defined as the extent to which rewards actually received meet or exceed the perceived equitable level of rewards. Variables
Co-relational Study: can sometimes disprove but never prove that a causal relationship exists. Questions: 1-Does satisfaction with pay lead to higher job performance? 2- Does an employee’s attitude regarding how his pay is determined, influence his job performance? Rationale of Methodology
Social person? Self-actualizing person? Economic person? The fact is that people is motivated by social and self-actualization needs as well as economic needs. 1- Yes and no
2- Attitude “changes” Inner-Directed Cluster • Forceful • Imaginative • Independent • Self-confident • Decisive Other-Directed Cluster • Cooperative • Adaptable • Cautious • Agreeable • Tactful
Security Social Esteem Autonomy Self-Actualization Types of needs
“It now appears that those types of needs which can be satisfied primarily by intrinsic rewards - autonomy and self-actualization– are more likely to produce attitudes about satisfaction that are significantly related to performance than are needs—such as security and social needs– which can be satisfied primarily by extrinsic rewards.”(p. 163) Revision of the Model
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L. Porter & E. Lawler, Managerial Attitudes and Performance (1968)Richard Irwin. Homewood, Illinois. T. Razik & A. Swanson, Fundamental Concepts of Educational Leadership & Management (2010) Pearson, Ally and Bacon. Boston, MA. http://www.laynetworks.com/Theories-of-Motivation.html http://www.learnmanagement2.com/porterandlawlerexpectancytheory.htm References