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Russia • President holds executive power. • No vice president. • Legislative branch far less powerful executive. • Legislature has two houses ( The state duma and federation council). • President is chosen by the people.
United Kingdom • Government • Type: Constitutional monarchy. • Constitution: Unwritten; partly statutes, partly common law and practice. • Branches: Executive--monarch (head of state), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral Parliament: House of Commons, House of Lords; Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, and Northern Ireland Assembly. Judicial--magistrates' courts, Crown Court, high court, appellate courts, Supreme Court. • Subdivisions: Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland (municipalities, counties, and parliamentary constituencies). • Political parties: Conservative, Labour, Liberal Democrats, U.K. Independence Party, British National Party, Green Party. Also, in Scotland, Scottish National Party; in Wales, Plaid Cymru (Party of Wales); in Northern Ireland, Democratic Unionist Party, Sinn Fein, Ulster Unionist Party, Social Democratic and Labour Party, Alliance Party, Traditional Unionist Voice, Green Party, Progressive Unionist Party. • Suffrage: British subjects and citizens of other Commonwealth countries and the Irish Republic resident in the U.K., at 18. • Economy • GDP (at current market prices; International Monetary Fund (IMF), 2011): $2.481 trillion. • Annual growth rate (IMF, 2010): +1.14%. • Per capita GDP (at current market prices; IMF, 2011): $39,604. • Natural resources: Coal, oil, natural gas, tin, limestone, iron ore, salt, clay, chalk, gypsum, lead, silica. • Agriculture (0.6% of GDP; U.K. Office for National Statistics (ONS), 2011): Products--cereals, oilseed, potatoes, vegetables, cattle, sheep, poultry, fish. • Industry (21.9% of GDP; ONS, 2011): Types--steel, heavy engineering and metal manufacturing, textiles, motor vehicles and aircraft, construction (7.0% of GDP), electronics, chemicals. • Services (77.4% of GDP; ONS, 2011): Types--financial, business, distribution, transport, communication, hospitality. • Trade (at current prices, 2011 exchange rates; ONS, 2011): Exports of goods and services--$782.7 billion. Major goods exports--manufactured goods, fuels, chemicals, food, beverages, tobacco. Major export markets--U.S., European Union. Imports of goods and services--$827.6 billion. Major goods imports--manufactured goods, machinery, fuels, foodstuffs. Major import suppliers--U.S., European Union, and China.
China • Government • Type: Communist party-led state. • Constitution: December 4, 1982; revised several times, most recently in 2004. • Independence: Unification under the Qin (Ch'in) Dynasty 221 BC; Qing (Ch'ing or Manchu) Dynasty replaced by a republic on February 12, 1912; People's Republic established October 1, 1949. • Branches: Executive--president, vice president, State Council, premier. Legislative--unicameral National People's Congress. Judicial--Supreme People's Court, Local People's Courts, Special People's Courts. • Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (the P.R.C. considers Taiwan to be its 23rd province); 5 autonomous regions, including Tibet; 4 municipalities directly under the State Council. • Political parties: Chinese Communist Party, 76 million members; 8 minor parties under Communist Party supervision. • Economy • GDP (2010 est.): $5.88 trillion (exchange rate-based); $10.09 trillion (purchasing power parity). • Per capita GDP (2010): $7,600 (purchasing power parity). • GDP real growth rate (2010): 10.3%. • Natural resources: Coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest). • Agriculture: Products--Among the world's largest producers of rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley; commercial crops include cotton, other fibers, apples, oilseeds, pork and fish; produces variety of livestock products. • Industry: Types--mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products, including footwear, toys, and electronics; food processing; transportation equipment, including automobiles, rail cars and locomotives, ships, and aircraft; telecommunications equipment, commercial space launch vehicles, satellites. • Trade: Exports (2010)--$1.506 trillion: electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, textiles, iron and steel, optical and medical equipment. Main partners (2009)--U.S. 20.03%, Hong Kong 12.03%, Japan 8.32%, South Korea 4.55%, Germany 4.27%. Imports (2010 est.)--$1.307 trillion: electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels, optical and medical equipment, metal ores, plastics, organic chemicals.
Canada • Government • Type: Federation, parliamentary democracy, and constitutional monarchy. • Confederation: July 1, 1867. • Constitution: The British North America Act of 1867 patriated to Canada on April 17, 1982, the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, and unwritten custom and convention. The Constitution Acts of 1867 and 1982, and the Charter of Rights and Freedoms are collectively referred to as the Constitution Act. • Branches: Executive--Queen Elizabeth II (head of state represented by a governor general), prime minister (head of government), cabinet. Legislative--bicameral Parliament (308-member House of Commons; 105-seat Senate). Judicial--Supreme Court. • Federal-level political parties: Conservative Party of Canada (government), New Democratic Party (official opposition), Liberal Party of Canada, Bloc Quebecois, Green Party of Canada. • Subdivisions: 10 provinces, 3 territories. • Economy • GDP (2010): $1.3 trillion. • Real GDP growth rate (2010): 3.1%. • Per capita GDP (2010): $46,600 (nominal); $39,400 (PPP). • Natural resources: Petroleum and natural gas, hydroelectric power, metals and minerals, fish, forests, wildlife, abundant fresh water. • Agriculture: Products--wheat, livestock and meat, feed grains, oil seeds, dairy products, tobacco, fruits, vegetables. • Industry: Types--motor vehicles and parts, machinery and equipment, aircraft and components, other diversified manufacturing, fish and forest products, processed and unprocessed minerals. • Trade: U.S. merchandise exports to Canada 2010)--$249.1 billion: motor vehicles and spare parts, industrial and electrical machinery, plastics, computers, chemicals, petroleum products and natural gas, and agricultural products. In 2010, 75% of Canada's imports came from the United States. U.S. merchandise imports from Canada (2010)--$277.6 billion: motor vehicles and spare parts, crude petroleum and natural gas, forest products, agricultural products, metals, industrial machinery, and aircraft. In 2010, 75% of Canada's exports went to the United States.