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Emerging Wireless Internet Standards. Russ Housley Founder of Vigil Security, LLC IETF Chair [email protected] 1 June 2011. Internet Engineering Task Force. “ We make the net work ”

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Emerging Wireless Internet Standards

Russ Housley

Founder of Vigil Security, LLC

IETF Chair

[email protected]

1 June 2011

internet engineering task force
Internet Engineering Task Force
  • “We make the net work”
  • The mission of the IETF is to produce high quality, relevant technical and engineering documents that influence the way people design, use, and manage the Internet in such a way as to make the Internet work better. These documents include protocol standards, best current practices, and informational documents of various kinds. [RFC 3935]
ietf open standards
IETF Open Standards

While the mission of the IETF is to make the Internet work better, no one is “in charge” of the Internet. Instead, many people cooperate to make it work. Each person brings a unique perspective of the Internet, and this diversity sometimes makes it difficult to reach consensus. Yet, when consensus is achieved, the outcome is better, clearer, and more strongly supported than the initial position of any participant.

making the internet better
Making the Internet Better

Challenges from wireless devices

  • Scalability – allow the Internet to support every person and device on the planet
  • Mobility – keep your connection and applications wherever you go and while you are going

Internet of Things:

Trillions of Nodes

  • Growth from:
  • Phones
  • Logistics
  • Transportation
  • Smart Metering
  • Personal Sensors
  • Building Automation
  • Industrial Automation

Internet Fringe:

Billions of Nodes

Internet Core:

Millions of Nodes

internet of things ietf scope
Internet of Things: IETF Scope
  • General-purpose technology (IPv6)
  • Suitable routing mechanisms
  • “IP over X” specifications
  • Transport protocols and middleware
  • Operational considerations

Not in IETF scope due to lack of expertise:

  • Link layers, specific applications, specific network architectures, policy issues, …
constrained nodes in the internet of things
Constrained Nodes in theInternet of Things
  • Node: CPU with a few MHz, ~10 KB RAM, ~100 KB Flash/ROM
  • Network: ~100 Kbit/s, high loss, high link variability, very limited packet size
  • Often battery operated, so must sleep a lot (mW • (1.0–(99.9 %)) = μW)
  • Example: CC2420 Sleep: 20 μA Idle: 426 μA Receive: 18.8 mA Transmit: 8.5 – 17.7 mA
ietf working groups 1 of 2
IETF Working Groups (1 of 2)
  • 6LoWPAN: IPv6 (L2 / L3 interface) for low power, low data rate radio communication (already defined IP over IEEE 802.15.4)
  • MANET and ROLL: IPv6 routing solutions for ad hoc networks and low power and lossy networks (LLNs), respectively
  • CoRE: COAP, a light weight UDP-based protocol for sensor networks
ietf working groups 2 of 2
IETF Working Groups (2 of 2)
  • EMAN: energy measurement and management framework and MIBs
  • LWIG: Light-weight implementation guidance
    • Not a profile or a new protocol
    • Explains what μIP and other small implementations can do to ensure small footprint
rfc 4944 ipv6 over ieee 802 15 4
RFC 4944: IPv6 over IEEE 802.15.4

RFC 4944 provides a number of functions beyond the L2 / L3 interface to enable mapping from the IPv6 to IEEE802.15.4:

  • Adapting packet sizes
  • Header compression
  • Neighbor discovery
  • Power conservation
  • Routing topologies for mesh of devices
routing protocol for low power and lossy networks rpl
Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL)
  • A distance vector routing protocol
  • Builds Directed Acyclic Graphs (DAGs)
  • Optimized for low-energy networks
  • Allows building routed networks of “things”



constrained application protocol coap
Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP)
  • Light-weight, HTTP-like protocol
  • Runs on UDP and supports multicast
  • HTTP-COAP mapping

Mobile Devices

  • More and more capabilities: voice, video, email, instant messaging, web browsing, geo-location

Mobile Networks

  • Ships, trains, and planes (and soon automobiles)
    • Critical system using Internet protocols
    • Connect passenger’s mobile and portable devices
internet mobility
Internet Mobility
  • Early IETF mobility work was largely done by researchers, seeing relatively little deployment
    • 3GPP2 and CDMA networks used Mobile IP
  • Today’s cellular networks use many IETF standards
  • Some new capabilities coming, but not too many
    • Multiple Interfaces (MIF) with Multipath TCP (MPTCP) is an example
    • Avoid specialized protocols in different places
    • Goal: one interoperable mobile Internet
many pieces working together
Many Pieces Working Together

























Layer 2Mobility

(Not IETF)

ietf working groups
IETF Working Groups
  • MIP4, MIP6, and NETLMM: Mobile IP
  • MIPSHOP: Performance, signaling and handoff optimization for Mobile IP
  • MIF: multiple simultaneous network attachments
  • HIP: a method of separating the end-point identifier and locator roles of IP addresses
  • MPTCP: Multipath TCP uses multiple paths during a regular TCP session
mobile ip
Mobile IP
  • Mobile IPv4 is specified in RFC 3344
  • Mobile IPv6 is specified in RFC 3775 and RFC 3776
  • Mobility allows a node to continue using its “permanent” home address as it moves around the Internet, including maintenance of active TCP connections and UDP port bindings
multiple interfaces
Multiple Interfaces
  • A host with multiple interfaces must select:
    • default router
    • address
    • DNS server
    • interface for packet transmission
  • Some configuration objects are:
    • global to the node
    • local to the interface
    • related to a particular prefix
multipath tcp
Multipath TCP
  • Complements MIF – preparing for mobile end hosts with multiple radios
  • Allow devices to shift between links
    • Pick to most energy efficient network connection to increase battery life
    • Pick “cheaper” access
    • Avoid outages or congestion
    • Might also pool bandwidth from multiple paths
and maybe
MovementAnd Maybe …




invitation to participate
Invitation to Participate
  • IETF uses an open standards process
    • Everyone is invited to participate
    • Even if unable to attend the face-to-face meetings, join mail list discussions
  • One Internet
    • Open standards for a global Internet
    • Maximum interoperability
    • Add capabilities for mobile devices
    • Avoid specialized protocols in different places
thank you
Thank You

Russ Housley

Phone: +1 703 435 1775

Email: [email protected]