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Fertilization, Pregnancy, and Labor and Delivery. Ch. 29. Pregnancy by Weeks. Doctors and midwives track pregnancy by weeks. A typical pregnancy and full-term is 40 weeks The weeks are counted from the first day of your last period

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Pregnancy by weeks
Pregnancy by Weeks

  • Doctors and midwives track pregnancy by weeks.

  • A typical pregnancy and full-term is 40 weeks

  • The weeks are counted from the first day of your last period

    • This means that during week 1, you are not technically pregnant yet

Embryonic period
Embryonic Period

  • Fertilization (week 2)

  • Sperm and egg unite

  • 300 million sperm make it into the vagina

  • Only 2 million reach the cervix

  • Only 200 reach the egg in the fallopian tube

  • Fertilization occurs 12-24 after ovulation

  • Pregnancy is most likely during a 3-day window

    • 2 days before ovulation to 1 day after ovulation

After fertilization
After Fertilization

  • Cell is called a zygote

  • Cleavage

    • Mitotic divisions of cells

    • 1 to 2 to 4 to 16 (3 days)

  • Implantation

    • Zygote implants into wall of uterus

    • Occurs 6 days after fertilization


  • Twins

    • Dizygotic (fraternal) – two sperms, two eggs

    • Monozygotic (identical) – 1 egg, 1 sperm, divides within first 8 days

    • After 8 day division – conjoined twins

  • Ectopic Pregnancy

    • Development of embryo outside uterus

    • Can happen in fallopian tube or ovary

    • Pregnancy cannot continue


  • What occurs in the first 3 days after fertilization?

  • Describe the difference between fraternal and maternal twins.

  • What occurs during the first week after fertilization?

By the end of month 1
By the end of month 1

  • Baby is ¼ inch long, size of poppy seed

  • Heart, digestive system, backbone, and spinal cord are beginning to form

  • Placenta develops

By the end of month 2
By the end of month 2

  • Heart is functioning

  • Eyes, nose, lips, tongue, ears, teeth are forming

  • Baby is moving, but mom can’t feel it yet

  • Arm and leg buds appear

  • Size of a kidney bean

  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-1-to-9_10302602.bc

By the end of month 3
By the end of month 3

  • Arms, hands, fingers, legs, and toes are fully formed

  • Nails form, hair grows

  • Most organs are fully formed

  • Reflexes – opening mouth, sucking, grasping

  • Urinating – drinks urine

  • Size of a lime

By the end of month 4
By the end of month 4

  • Genitals are developed

  • Skin is pink and covered in soft hair

  • Can suck thumb

  • Facial expressions

  • “breathing” – moves amniotic fluid into lungs

  • Taste buds form, eyes can sense light but are still closed

  • Size of avocado

  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-1-to-9_10302602.bc

By the end of month 5 1 2 way
By the end of month 5 (1/2 way)

  • Baby weighs 1 lb. (size of banana)

  • Mommy can feel baby move

  • Internal organs mature

  • Eyebrows, eyelids, eyelashes appear

  • Cartilage is turning to bone

  • Nerves are becoming myelinated

  • Baby can hear voices or loud noises

  • Produces meconium

  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-1-to-9_10302602.bc

By the end of the 6 th month
By the end of the 6th month

  • Eyes can open

  • Skin is covered in waxy vernix to prevent pickling in amniotic fluid

  • Baby hiccups – mom can feel it

  • Mom can see baby move in belly

  • Baby is gaining weight

By the end of the 7 th month
By the end of the 7th month

  • If baby is born now, he could survive but need special care

  • Hair is growing

  • Baby is gaining fat

  • Baby sleeps and is awake

  • Baby can blink and see light

  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-21-to-27_10312242.bc

By the end of the 8 th month
By the end of the 8th month

  • Brain grows

  • Weight gain is rapid

  • Organs are fully developed except lungs

  • Skin is less wrinkly, baby is filled out

By the end of the 9 th month
By the end of the 9th month

  • Baby has turned head down to prepare for birth

  • Lungs are fully developed

  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-21-to-27_10312242.bc


  • Summarize the events that take place in each month of pregnancy. Focus mainly on organ development.

Prenatal testing
Prenatal Testing

  • Doppler – used to listen to baby’s heartbeat

  • Ultrasound – used to get accurate fetal age, check for proper growth, determine fetal position, identify multiple pregnancies

    Ultra sounds pics here!


  • Invovles withdrawing some amniotic fluid and analyzing fetal cells

  • Can detect genetic disorders

    • Down syndrome

    • Hemophilia

    • Tay-Sach’s disease

    • Sickle-cell disease

  • Ultrasound is used to prepare

  • Needle is inserted through mother’s abdomen and into amniotic cavity

  • Fluid is withdrawn and analzyed

Chorionic villi sampling cvs
Chorionic Villi Sampling (CVS)

  • Catheter is guided through vagina and cervix into chorionic villi of placenta

  • Can detect same disorders as amniocentesis

  • Advantages

    • Can be done earlier

    • Test results are quicker

    • Abdominal penetration isn’t required

  • Disadvantage – increased risk for miscarriage (1-2%)

Early pregnancy test ept
Early Pregnancy Test (EPT)

  • Detect tiny amounts of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) in urine

  • False-positives are rare – if you have the hormone, you are pregnant

  • False-negatives are more common – testing too soon


  • Contractions can begin weeks before delivery

  • Sometimes the mother can’t feel them

  • Braxton-Hick’s contractions – tightening of the muscles surrounding the baby, but not uterine

  • Induced by oxytocin

  • “false” labor – when contractions are irregular, no dilation, no mucus discharge (plug)

  • “true” labor – mucus plug, contractions are regular, walking intensifies contractions


  • 3 stages

    • Stage of dilation (6-12) hours

      • Starts from start of labor to complete dilation (10 cm)

      • Amniotic sac breaks (water)

    • Stage of expulsion (10 min. to several hours)

      • From complete dilation to delivery of baby

    • Placental stage (5-30 min.)

      • When placenta is delivered

C section

  • Cut through abdominal wall and lower uterus

  • Baby is removed

  • Stitches to close up incision

  • Done because:

    • Woman is not progressing

    • Baby is not in correct position

    • Mother’s body could not handle delivery (blood pressure, etc.)


  • Often have cone-shaped heads because of trip through birth canal

  • Suction is used to clear nose and mouth for breathing


  • http://www.babycenter.com/2_inside-pregnancy-weeks-21-to-27_10312242.bc