High Energy Physics in Brazil . Brazilian Science, the HEP network, and CERN membership . Science in Brazil. Started very late: Monopoly of Higher Education by University of Coimbra, Portugal until 1808 when
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High Energy Physics in Brazil Brazilian Science, the HEP network, and CERN membership João dos Anjos - ObservatórioNacional & CBPF 3er Congreso Nacional de la Red FAE Guanajuato, 23-27 January 2014
Science in Brazil • Startedvery late: • MonopolyofHigherEducationbyUniversityof Coimbra, Portugal until 1808 when thePortuguese Royal Court came to Brazil fleeing the invading Napoleonic army. • FirstScientificsInstitutions : • Botanical Garden in Rio de Janeiro (1808) – toacclimatizeforeingplants • Observatório Nacional (1827) – 5 yearsafterindependencefrom Portugal • SeveralFacultiesandPolytechnicalSchoolscreatedduring XIX century. • FirstUniversities: • Universidade do Rio de Janeiro (1920). Createdputtingtogether 3 Faculties Escola Politecnica + Faculdade de Medicina + Faculdade de Direito • Universityof São Paulo – USP (1934) – celebrating 80 years in 2014! • Universidade do Brasil – Rio de Janeiro (1937) • FirstResearch Center: CBPF – Rio de Janeiro (1949)
BrazilianUniversities in 2010 Universities: Total: 192 Public: 101 (63 Federal) Private: 91 Thisaddsabout 14.000 researchers In the system / year
Science & Technology System in Brazil • 1951 Creationof CNPq and CAPES(MEC), Federal agencies topromote Science • 1956 CreationoftheNationalAtomic Energy Commission • 1962 FAPESP – Stateof São Paulo Foundation tosupportscienceprojects • 1967 FINEP – Government Bank toFinanceScientificProjects • 1968 Full time isintroduced in theUniversities • 1971 Creationof FNDCT - NationalFund for theDevelopmentof Science and Technology • 1985 Creationof MCT - Ministryof Science and Technology • 1999 CreationofSectorialFundsto finance projects of scientific and technological research of interest of the industries integrating these sectors. Currently, 16 Funds are functioning • 2007 – 2010 NationalPlan for Science, Technology andInnovation
Howthe Science and Technology System Works? • Federal Government agencies: • CNPq – Ministryof Science, Technology & Innovation CAPES – MinistryofEducation • States agencies: • FAPESP, FAPERJ, FAPEMIG, andotherStateAgencies supportof individual projectswithfellowshipsandresearchgrants • FINEP (Financiadora de Estudos e Projetos/MCTI) supportsindustry, publicinstitutionsandinfrastructureprojects.
Experimental High Energy Physics in Brazil Pre-history: 1934 – GlebWataghin and Bernhard Gross arrive in Brazil from Europe. 1940 – Penetrating showers in cosmic radiation discovered by Wataghin, Damy, and Pompeia 1947 – Meson Pi discovery by Powell, Lattes and Occhialini. (Pic du Midi + Chalcataya data) 1948 – Artificial production of pions by Lattes and Gardner at Berkeley Laboratory. 1949 – Foundation of CBPF by Lattes, Leite Lopes and Jayme Tiomno. 1962 – Start of the Brazil-Japan Collaboration in Cosmic Rays at Chalcataya, Bolivia, proposed by Yukawa (5,200 m). 1970’s – Discovery of the exotic Centauro events by the Brazil-Japan collaboration.
80’s: New revival of HEP in Particle Accelerators: 1982: Cocoyot meeting in Mexico: Leon Lederman invites Latin American physicists to participate in experiments at Fermilab. 1983: 2nd Pan American Symposium in Rio de Janeiro: new offer and support for 4 physicists. 1984: Brazilian group of 4 physicists join experiment E691 of Charm photoproduction at Fermilab. 1987: HerwigSchopper, Director of CERN, and Carlo Rubiainvite Brazilian physicists to join CERN experiments through the Portuguese group lead by Jose Mariano Gago and Gaspar Barreiro. Groups from CBPF, PUC and UFRJ join DELPHI experiment at LEP.
Today’s Brazilian participation at CERN: ATLAS:group of engineers from UFRJ that migrated from Delphi UFRJ + UF São João del Rey CMS:group that was formely at D0 at Fermilab CBPF, UERJ, UNESP, UFABC LHCb: group working on Delphi + heavy quarks at Fermilab UFRJ, CBPF and PUC-RJ ALICE: nuclear physics group formerly at Brookhaven RHIC/STAR USP and UNICAMP ALPHA: anti-hidrogen group from UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro CERN Theory Division: frequent visits of Brazilian theoreticians Spin Offs: - CERN/CLAF Instrumentation School - CERN School for High School teachers (org. by SBF): 30 Brazilian + 30 Portuguese + 10 African/Portuguese teachers
Brazilian participation at CERN:Numberofphysicists p/ experiment • Total 2010 = 47 • Total 2014 = 72 • Total 2014 (staff + posdocs + students) = 110
Creationof RENAFAE (Mai 2008) REDE NACIONAL DE FÍSICA DE ALTAS ENERGIAS
RENAFAE: Rede Nacional de Física de Altas Energias RENAFAE: created in 2008 to coordinate Brazilian participation in International collaborations in Experimental High Energy Physics. - To promote the scientific and technological advance in the research of the properties of elementary particles and its fundamental interactions - To coordinate the activities of the groups working in high energy physics with special attention to the activities associated to the large international collaborations - To consolidate and to expand the research in High Energy Physics and to exploit the associated benefits and their technological applications To develop a program to involve industries installed in Brazil in the development of instrumentation and software in collaboration with the groups working in high energy physics.
RENAFAE budget • 2008: R$ 500.000,00 ( ≈ 295 kUSD) • 2009: R$ 700.000,00 ( ≈ 410 kUSD) • 2010: R$ 1.000.000,00 ( ≈ 590 kUSD) • 2011: R$ 1.000.000,00 ( ≈ 590 kUSD) • FINEP (2011-2012):R$ 6.000.000,00 ( ≈ 3.530 kUSD) • CNPq (2009-2012): R$ 1.600.000,00 (960 kUSD) + fellowships for students and posdocs State Agencies (2009-2012): R$ 3.000.000,00 ( ≈ 1.765 kUSD) • TOTAL (2008-2012): R$ 13.800.000,00 ( ≈ 8.100 kUSD)
RENAFAE Meetings • Every Year: • Workshop with presentation of each experiment (progress report). • meeting of the Steering Committee just after the presentations to evaluate projects and decide about financial support. • First semester: decision about M&O payment: Written report on group and individual activities within the collaboration. • End of the year: presentation of the scientific results obtained by the group. • Every two years: Presentation and international evaluation of the work done by each group. Written report with comments and recommendations.
BRAZIL @ CERN • 2001 Minister of Science and Technology, Ronaldo Sardenbergvisits CERN: proposal to Brazil to join CERN with Observer status. • 2009 Ricardo Galvão (RENAFAE president) participates in the discussions about Geographical Enlargement of CERN and recommends Minister of Science and Technology the Brazilian association with CERN: “O CTC recomenda ao Sr. Ministro de Ciência e Tecnologia que designe um Grupo de Trabalho de Alto Nível para discutir com as autoridades do CERN, as condições nas quais o Brasil poderia tornar-se membro daquela instituição. O CTC entende que isto oferece uma excelente oportunidade à ciência e à tecnologia brasileiras para mudar o patamar de sua inserção internacional e, também, às indústrias de participarem dos avanços tecnológicos gerados naquela instituição. Esta oportunidade vem ao encontro dos termos da carta de intenções assinada pelo Sr. Ministro, por ocasião de sua visita ao CERN em Setembro de 2009.” • 2009 Minister Sergio Rezende (MCTI) visits CERN • 2010 CERN approves Scientific and Geographical Enlargement
BrazilianTask Force visits CERN15-17 September 2010 The Parties Declare as follows: - The Parties agree to work together to facilitate a possible application by Brazil to become an Associate Member State of CERN; - To this end, CERN has communicated the conditions approved by the CERN Council for Associate Membership status (“the Conditions”); - The Parties note that these include the payment of an annual contribution to CERN amounting to at least 10% of the sum that the applicant State would contribute as a Member State; - Associate Membership status would also make Brazilian industrial companies eligible to bid for CERN contracts, again, up to a ceiling that shall be determined on the basis of the amount of Brazil’s financial contribution to the CERN budget;
October 2012: CERN Task Force visitsBrazil • The Task Force will collect information on: • the administrative structure, decision-making procedures, funding mechanisms and organization of physical sciences and the education system in general in the applicant State; • the status of high-energy physics in the applicant State, the existing institutions, the level of funding, the personnel and recruitment situation, its track record over the last five years and strategies/plans for the near future; • previous CERN experience of participation of the applicant State’s institutions in the Organization’s experiments, and the applicant State’s potential for contributing constructively to the CERN programme in the long term; • the level and structure of high-technology industry in the applicant State, and the existing potential for that industry’s participation in CERN activities.
October 2012: CERN Task Force visitsBrazil • Task Force Questions to MCTI:
December 2013Happyend: BrazilisacceptedtojoinCERN.... From: REGINA MARIA CORDEIRO DUNLOP, Embaixadora" Ministério das Relações Exteriores em 03/01/2014 To: Ilustríssimo Senhor Conselheiro Franklin Silva Netto Chefe da Assessoria de Assuntos Internacionais Ministério da Ciência, Tecnologia e Inovação • "Informo. A convite, visitei, em 20/12, as instalações da Organização Européia para Pesquisa Nuclear (CERN), onde fui recebida, em almoço, pelo Diretor-Geral, Prof. Rolf Heuer, e pelo Chefe de Relações Internacionais, Dr. RüdigerVoss. • Na ocasião, o Prof. Heuer referiu-se à aprovação pelo Conselho, no último dia 12/12, do relatório da força-tarefa que visitou o Brasil em outubro de 2012. Como passo seguinte no processo de eventual associação do Brasil, entregou-me carta acompanhada de minuta de acordo para a consideração do Governo brasileiro. • NowBrazilianCongresshastoapprovetheagreementtobesignedbytheMinisterof Science and Technology.
New Projects • PHYSICS: • Synchroton Light Source SIRIUS: 300 million dollars • Multi-purpose nuclear reactor: 450 million dollars • Associated Member State at CERN: 15 million dollars/year • ASTRONOMY: • Participation in ESO: 25 million Euros/year * 10 years • CTA: 10 million dollars • Participation in SOAR + Gemini + DES + SDSS-IV + LSST + DESI • Will fundingbeavailable for alltheseprojects ?