Usability Testing for Usable Accessibility. U. Kate Walser Whitney Quesenbery. Hi . Kate Interaction design, usability testing and slipping accessibility under the radar. Whitney Users’ stories, plain language, discovered accessibility as a right in elections What about you?.
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Interaction design, usability testing and slipping accessibility under the radar.
Users’ stories, plain language, discovered accessibility as a right in elections
What about you?
What do you think usability testing is?
Does anyone in your organization do any sort of usability testing?
What stands in the way of doing usability?
Introduction to usability testing
Demo of a usability test
Planning a usability test
Take a deep breath
First practice test
Debrief and moderating skills
Testing with people with disabilities
Debrief and applying what you learned
For this person efficiency and effectiveness are the most important dimensions.
For this person, easy to learn and error tolerant are the most important dimensions.
A’s Ability, aptitude, attitude
(what users bring to the site)
E’s Efficient, effective, engaging, error-tolerant, easy to learn
(dimensions of usability)
Use Useful, usable (operable), desirable
(how we define success)
Informal usability testing of voting materials at the Farmer's Market in Olympia, Washington
We learn from users by watching them use the site or other materials.
Dona Vitale conducting a usability test in Chicago, 2005
A formal lab includes a room where the participants work, and a separate room for observers to watch.
Sessions are often recorded on video
Michigan State University Usability & Accessibility Centerhttp://usability.msu.edu/default.asp
How will a person with disabilities use the product?
How usable is the product by people with disabilities?
How engaging and effective is your content strategy?
You want to a group from Access to go fishing at a local park.
Find a park that has a wheelchair accessible fishing pier.
What are the admission fees?
Your site visitors' goals (and their reality)
Success − for youand your users
Location and context: formal informal
Recruiting: defined opportunistic
Activities: instructed tasks free tasks
Questions: structured unstructured
Data collection: observation task/data only
Results quantitative qualitative
Flight attendant: Ensuring safety and comfort
Scientist: Planning, maintaining objectivity, managing data
Watch (and listen) quietly for whether the user
Take good notes
Ask participants for their own scenarios.
Give participants tasks you have written.
Customize scenarios for the participants.
Use both of these with their own scenario first.
Consider asking people to “think aloud” as they work
Assistive technology may make think aloud harder. If so, you can go back over the material (“retrospective”)
If the user says, “hmmm” or “oops” or “I wonder…”
If you are doing "think aloud" and the user is silent for 10 or 20 seconds (count!)
If users stop because they think they're done or they are stuck (and you think there’s a problem)
Usability testingdoes not have to be formal, lengthy, or expensive.
You don’t need
Poster from Washington State
Understand users and their goals
Evaluate the site throughout the development process
Evaluate the finished site to measure its success
Watch site usage and technical support for evidence of problems
Design and Development
The next time someone asks you a question about your site, ask them to use it instead.
Watch as they try to find the information.
Pick something you want people to do.
Review the script for briefing the participant.
Write the task instructions.
Starting point (desktop, a URL?)
Phrase it in their language
What do you want to watch for?
Remember to thank the participant at the end
Get into a group of three.
Take turns, so everyone tries each role.
We’ll call time.
Flight attendant Ensuring safety and comfort
ScientistPlanning, maintaining objectivity, managing data
Often, but not always, create the test plan and testing scenarios
Welcome and support the participant
Avoid accidentally influencing results
Observe quietly and avoid distracting participants
Often, moderators also manage the customer team whose products will be used in the sessions.
Define and prioritize objectives
Describe to the customer the process, logistics
Explain how you will handle “edge cases”
Creates a test plan to use during the session
Creating a test plan and schedule for usability testing helps avoid mistakes and oversights.
Arrive early – “on time” is “late”
Listen and watch with an open mind
Respect the participant
Hesitant or nervous
Ready to throw their friends and colleagues under a bus before themselves!
Photo credit: “accuse,” Grey Worldhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/greyworld/
Smiling man points to friend who is covering his face.
If possible, confirm the session yourself
Memorize the script
Learn negotiation tactics
A little girl sitting in dentist’s chair is smiling from ear to ear after learning she has no cavities.
Photo credit: “No Cavities!” daveparkerhttp://www.flickr.com/photos/daveparker/
Photo credit: “Usability Testing our Paper Prototypes” Jason de Runahttp://www.flickr.com/photos/jderuna/
Person uses paper printout of screens to describe interaction and path
Prepare and anticipate problems
Observe without influencing outcomes
Make participants feel valued
If you are the moderator, use your practice test.
If you are an observer, think about
What you will watch for
Where to sit so you can see, but won’t distract the participant.
Challenges observing this person’s AT or accessibility setup.
Remember: focus on what happens, not analysis or recommendations
Allow more time to find participants
Look for community groups and ask
Use specialized recruiting services
Work with outreach groups
Knowbility’sAccessWorks portal gives users with disabilities a way to sign up to participate in online tests and explains to usability and marketing professionals that they can use Loop11’s online testing and recruit users with disabilities.
Conduct in a physical location
Some other place
Moderator sits with participant
Be prepared to provide the assistive technologies or ask users to bring theirs (including any personalized style sheets for web pages)
Conduct via online tools
Accessible screen sharing software (or) accessible online usability testing
Moderator may facilitate or may just review results later
User uses their own, native, familiar assistive technology and setup
Location becomes even more critical
Room setup matters
Explain what will happen and ask about specifics
Describe the setup, and include accessibility specifics in your confirmation emails
Ask if they will bring anything
If refreshments will be served, ask about dietary restrictions
Ensure that the testing and/or screen sharing application are truly accessible
Ask about the best way to interact with the participant
Add time between sessions for
Dry runs are critical, preferrably with a representative user or else, with someone trying to reflect the different considerations
Act like you normally would
Learn the AT
Look for general usability problems as well as those made worse by poor accessibility or interaction with the AT
Consider logistics, location, and setup
Allow more time for recruiting and between sessions
Do a dry run and practice observing
Handbook of Usability Testing by Jeff Rubin and Dana Chisnell
Rocket Surgery Made Easy by Steve Krug
Rocket Surgery demonstration video
www.usability.govA guide to developing usable and useful web sites (from US Dept of HHS)
First Fridays Product Testing Program