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Homefront. Mobilizing for War. One similarity between WWI and WWII on the home front was that. A. Japanese Americans were forcibly interned B. young men protested by burning their draft cards C. women filled many jobs traditionally held by men

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Homefront

Homefront

Mobilizing for War


One similarity between wwi and wwii on the home front was that
One similarity between WWI and WWII on the home front was that

A. Japanese Americans were forcibly interned

B. young men protested by burning their draft cards

C. women filled many jobs traditionally held by men

D. African Americans left the North to migrate to the South


Starter
Starter that

Japanese suicide pilots were know as _________ pilots.

A. Shinto

B. Samurai

C. Kamikaze

D. Amphtrac


Starter1
Starter that

One complaint of African Americans at the beginning of WWII was that they were

A. integrated

B. employed

C. empowered

D. disenfranchised


Converting the economy
Converting the Economy that

During the war American workers were

twice as productive as Germans

five times more productive than the Japanese

“American production, without which this war would have been lost”

-Joseph Stalin


Pre war preparations
Pre-War Preparations that

When Germany entered France, FDR declared a national emergency

Built 50,000 warplanes a year

Asked for $4 billion to build a “Two-Ocean” Navy

Defense budget was at $17 billion by October 1940

Created a National Defense Advisory Committee


Cost plus contracts
Cost-Plus Contracts that

Government agreed to pay a company whatever it cost to make a product, PLUS a guaranteed percentage of the costs as profit

Reconstruction Finance Corporation (RFC)

made loans to companies wanting to convert factories to war production


Tanks for cars
Tanks for Cars that

Automobile industry was uniquely suited to mass production of military equipment

Built vehicles, artillery, rifles, mines, helmet, pontoon bridges

The auto industry produced nearly 1/3 of all military equipment


Liberty ships
Liberty Ships that

Henry Kaiser went from construction to ship building (built 30% of all ships)

Prefabricated parts and brought them to shipyards

Liberty Ship

basic cargo ship

Went from 244 days to build to 41 days by the end of the war

3,000 built


War production board wpb
War Production Board (WPB) that

Set priorities and production goals, distributed raw materials and supplies

Clashed with the military

Military continued to sign contracts without consulting the WPB


Office of war mobilization owm
Office of War Mobilization (OWM) that

Settled arguments between different agencies


Building an army
Building an Army that

Selective Service and Training Act (1940)

first peacetime draft in American history

approved by Congress in September

More than 60,000 enlisted after Pearl Harbor

At first the army did not have the facilities or equipment to train that many


A segregated army
A Segregated Army that

At the beginning of the war the military was segregated

African Americans served in separate units commanded by white officers

Most even wanted to keep them out of combat


Double v campaign
“Double V” Campaign that

1941 the National Urban League encouraged members to join the war effort

Support the war to get victory over Hitler’s racism abroad and racism at home


African americans in combat
African Americans in Combat that

FDR ordered all branches to recruit African Americans and put them into combat

1941 the Air Force created its first African American unit-- 99th Pursuit Squadron

Became known as the “Tuskegee Airmen”


Military bases were integrated in 1943 that

President Truman would fully integrate the military in 1948


Other minorities in the military
Other Minorities in the Military that

Japanese American were not allowed to serve in the military at first

Second-generation Japanese Americans served in the 100th Infantry Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team

1/2 had been in internment camps

became the most decorated units in the history of the U.S. military


Mexican Americans joined the National Guard during the 1930s and served on the front lines

Most minorities served in non-combat positions

Native Americans were the exception

1/3 between 18-50 served


Women in the armed forces
Women in the Armed Forces and served on the front lines

Women served in WWI

Most worked in administrative and clerical positions

Women’s Auxiliary Corps (WAAC)

May 1942

First allowed women in the military

Headed by Oveta Culp Hobby


Women’s Army Corps (WAC) and served on the front lines

replaced WAAC

Hobby appointed Colonel

Women Airforce Service Pilots (WASPs)

training began in 1942

delivered planes

300 pilots made over 12,000 deliveries of 77 kinds of planes


The Coast Guard, Navy, and Marines also set up women’s units

68,000 women served as nurses in the army and navy


Starter african americans pushed for a victory in the war effort
Starter: units African Americans pushed for a ______ victory in the war effort.

A. Tuskegee

B. Triple C

C. Double V

D. Carver



End of the great depression
End of the Great Depression units

Created 19 million jobs

Doubled the income of the average family

Problems

Had to move where jobs were

Increased taxes, race riots, poor housing, increased juvenile delinquency, rationing


unitsRosie the Riveter”


Women
Women units

  • Worked in airplane plants and shipyards as riveters, steelworkers, and welders

    • numbers increased from 12.9 to 18.8 million

  • Challenges

    • men in the workforce, childcare, and unequal pay

  • When the war was over many were expected to return home


African americans
African Americans units

  • FDR issued Executive Order 8802 on June 25, 1941

    • “There shall be no discrimination in the employment of workers in defense industries or government because of race, creed, color, or national origin”

    • Fair Labor Practices Commission

      • enforced the order

      • first civil rights agency since Reconstruction


Mexican farmworkers
Mexican Farmworkers units

  • Bracero Program (1942-1964)

    • program organized by the government

    • more than 200,000 Mexicans came to the Southwest to work


Moving
Moving units

  • 15 million moved during the war

    • most moved west and south

    • Sunbelt: southern California and into the Deep South

  • Housing Crisis

    • Lanham Act (1940): provided $150 million for housing

    • National Housing Agency (NHA): coordinated government housing


The zoot suit riots

Worn by Mexican American teenagers in California units

June 1943

rumors that zoot-suiters attacked sailors caused 2,500 soldiers and sailors to attack Mexican American neighborhoods in LA

The Zoot Suit Riots


War bonds
War Bonds units

  • Federal spending increased from $8.9 billion in 1939 to $95.2 billion in 1945

    • Costs from 1941 to 1945 totaled $321 billion

  • Higher taxes paid for much of the war

  • Began selling bonds in 1941

  • Total sales reached $186 billion


Pop culture
Pop Culture units

  • Income levels rise because of jobs created in wartime industry

  • “Baby Boom”

  • Books and movies (Casablanca)

  • Baseball

    • 4,000 of 5,700 major and minor league players were in the service

    • 1943 Philip Wrigley founded the AAGSL that became the AAGBL in 1945


Shortages and controls
Shortages and Controls units

  • More war production=less consumer goods

  • Office of Price Administration (OPA) began rationing tires and other goods to fairly distribute scarce items

    • Ration books of coupons for certain goods including gasoline

  • Victory Gardens


How did the federal government control the economy during the war
How did the federal government control the economy during the war?

  • The government controlled the economy through wage and price controls, rationing, and the selling of bonds to pay for the war.


Starter2
Starter the war?

  • The Office of Price Administration began rationing, or limiting the availability of, many consumer products to make sure enough were available for

    • A. military use

    • B. the elderly

    • C. children

    • D. schools


Japanese internment
Japanese Internment the war?

In 1941 there were only about 127,000 in the U.S., most lived on the west coast

Nisei- born in the U.S. From parents who emigrated from Japan

Feb. 19, 1942 FDR signed an order that allowed the Secretary of War to establish military zones on the west coast and remove anyone from those zones


Internment
Internment the war?

  • War Relocation Authority - set up to move everyone of Japanese descent to internment camps (110,000)

  • Many lost their homes and businesses



Italian and german american relocation
Italian and German American Relocation the war?

  • FDR declared any unnaturalized residents of German or Italian descent 14 or over were designated enemy aliens

    • travel restrictions, ID cards

    • 5,000 were interned in Montana and North Dakota


  • In early 1945 they were allowed to leave the war?

  • In 1988 Congress passed a law awarding each surviving internee $20,000

  • 20,000 served in the military

  • 442nd Regimental Combat Team fought in France and Germany and won more medals than any other unit


In the case the war?Korematsu v. the United States, the Supreme Court ruled that relocation of Japanese Americans was

  • A. constitutional because it was based on military urgency

  • B. unconstitutional, and they had to be released at once

  • C. constitutional, but the government had to pay them property losses

  • D. unconstitutional because it was based on race


United nations
United Nations the war?

  • FDR believed a new organization could be created to prevent another war

  • 39 delegates met in 1944 in D.C.

  • Created the United Nations


  • General Assembly the war?

    • each member had 1 vote

    • vote on resolutions, choose non-permanent members of the security council, vote on budget


  • Security Council the war?

    • responsible for international peace and security

    • 11 members

    • 5 permanent members with veto power

      • Britain, France, China, Soviet Union, United States



Starter3
Starter the war?

  • In what way did the Treaty of Versailles lead to world conflict?

    • A. it created the League of Nations

    • B. it partitioned Russia

    • C. it forced England and France to disarm

    • D. it led to the economic and political instability of Germany


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