Progress Monitoring and Goal Writing Using CBMs to write RtI goals
What’s the importance? Research has demonstrated that when teachers use formative evaluation [progress monitoring]for instructional decision-making purposes: students achieve more teacher decision making improves students tend to be more aware of their performance (e.g., see Fuchs, Deno, Mirkin, 1984; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Ferguson, 1992; L. S. Fuchs, Fuchs, Hamlett, & Stecker, 1991; Stecker, Fuchs, & Fuchs, 2005)
Progress Monitoring Tools Used to monitor progress from one year to the next Sensitive to effects of an intervention Can be used regardless of curriculum (e.g. Harcourt, Scott Foresman) Useful to inform teaching Quick to administer & easy to score Provides instant data to graph
Previous Goal-Setting Strategies: Use “data” from standardized achievement tests like WIAT-II, WJ-III ACH Use data from Mastery Tests (e.g. chapter tests) Refer to state standards Use a sample goal-bank Suggestions on classroom observation of skills (subjective)
Pitfalls of Previous Strategies Standardized Tests (WIAT-II, WJ-ACH): Lack of alternate forms Less sensitive to short-term gains Mastery tests do not reflect maintenance or generalization of skills over the course of the school year Little guidance in selecting goals from state standards/ goal-banks: No consistent evaluation tool to measure goals written from standards or goal banks!
Pitfalls, continued… Creation of Bad Goals/Objectives: “Student will perform spelling skills at 3rd grade level.” “Student will master basic math facts with 80% accuracy.” “Student will read 1 story per week.” “Student will read aloud with 80% accuracy and 80% comprehension.” Little research supports that these types of goals relate to improved educational outcomes. Difficult to consistently measure over time. Tendency to write un-ambitious goals in hopes that student will show “some” progress over the year.
To improve our goal writing: Remember: goals are statements about the power or impact of our instructional programs. Goals need to be more clearly defined. Identify specific skills deficits through universal screening measures using CBM. Target a few, but important goals and objectives. Ensure goals are measurable and linked to validated progress monitoring approaches.
CBM to write RTI goals • CBM scores from Universal Screenings are easily translated into goals for RTI intervention. • Using CBM to write goals lets us accurately compare performance later in the year because: • Test administration of CBM is consistent (and quick!) • Scoring procedures are consistent • Difficulty level of test is always consistent
RTI: Who needs a goal? • A desirable goal for all students is to achieve a score at or above the 50th%ile on the Universal Screenings (Fall/Winter/ Spring). • Students below the 25th%ile are considered “At-Risk.” • Use AIMSweb site to schedule PM.
Components of our Goals Current/Present Level of Performance What the student is currently able to do in the targeted area. Taken from Fall, Winter, Spring Universal Screenings Intervention Goal Growth anticipated for specific time period Should be ambitious Must be specific Must be measurable
Growth Rates (Rate of Improvement/ ROI) How much growth students make in a week’s time. (ROI for students whose scores are entered into AIMSweb) Formula to determine how much growth you would like to see in a specific amount of time. *Goal = ________________________________ + Current Performance Level (___________________ X ____________________) # weeks until goal reviewed Growth Rate (use chart)
Ex. 2nd grader Ben’s median R-CBM score = 35. 12 weeks intervention timeframe. Would like to see Ben make progress at a similar rate to his peers (1.2 words/week). 35WRC/min+ (12wks x 1.2) = 49.4WRC/min (round to 50) This is a realistic goal. Growth Rates (Rate of Improvement)
Ambitious Goals • Using the Realistic Rate of Improvement (ROI) is not ambitious: • Based on progress made by students in general ed. classroom who are NOT receiving additional intervention. • Point of RTI is to help kids catch up • Realistic ROI will never be help students catch up because they will be learning at the same pace as students receiving no intervention; students receiving intervention need to learn at a faster pace.
Establishing a Goal: Growth Rates based on research by Doug and Lynn Fuchs Realistic Growth Rates Gr 1 2 words/week Gr 2 1.5 words/week Gr 3 1 word/week Gr 4 .9 words/week Gr 5 .5 words/week Ambitious Growth Rates Gr 1 3 words/week Gr 2 2 words/week Gr 3 1.5 words/week Gr 4 1.1 words/week Gr 5 .8 words/week Increased growth rate is around 0.5 to 1.0 15
Setting the Goal Level Determine an appropriate goal! Be ambitious! Select the level that you want to see the student achieve within a specific amount of time. Research has shown that ambitious goals can lead to better student achievement: How ambitious you are should depend on: How often you can feasibly provide services How confident you are in the power of your instructional programs and resources Age of the student
Selecting Length of Time • Determine how much time to allow until the goal can be feasibly reached. • RTI goals written to reflect length of intervention: • Depends on how long interventionist needs to effectively teach skill. • Individualized based on student need. • Recommend six, nine, or twelve weeks
Sample RtI Goal Written with AIMSweb Early Numeracy Goal (Kindergartener) • Comparison to Peers: • Peers are identifying around 30 numbers in a minute. • Baseline: • Lizzie currently identifies 5 numbers in a minute. • Benchmark: • At the end of 9 weeks, Lizzie will identify 24 numbers in a minute.
Although there may be variations in specific wording, or word order, these goal formats form the basis for frequent progress monitoring.
What about Tier III? • When a student hits Tier III, short and long terms goals need to be set. • These goals should be set with your school psychologist.
Reading Phonemic Awareness Phonics Vocabulary Fluency Comprehension Math Arithmetic skill/fluency Problem solving Conceptual knowledge/Number sense Reasoning Ability Core Curriculum