“The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian” St. Jerome - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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“The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian” St. Jerome

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“The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian” St. Jerome

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  1. Arianism “The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian” St. Jerome

  2. Arianism • Arius a priest who reflecting on Jesus’ statement that “the Father is greater than I” concluded: • Christ, while not God, is an exceptional creature • Raised to be “Son of God” because of His holiness • The Logos, a creature, was created before the beginning of the world

  3. Effects of Arianism • Arius’ teachings jeopardized many, if not all, of the core tenets of Christianity • Arian bishops were appointed by Arians and tried to have the orthodox bishops exiled so they could take over the sees • The Arians had the help of the various Arian emperors • Riots would break out between Arians and Catholic Christians over doctrines

  4. Response to Arianism Emperor Constantine did not particularly care who was correct, but he wanted unity * Arian/Catholic disagreement led to disunity in the Empire

  5. Council of Nicea • Constantine wanted a general council at Nicaea (in modern Turkey) in 325 to settle the matter • Constantine • paid for the Western bishops to be able to attend • Opened the first session and kept the peace between the two factions • Pope Sylvester I • could not attend due to age, but Bishop Hosius of Cordova, Spain acted as his legate

  6. Council of Nicea • First Ecumenical Council • Significant since Christianity had only been legalized in the Empire for 12 years • Catholics argued the word “homoousios” described the relationship between God the Father and God the Son, Jesus Christ • Word means “of the same substance/nature” • Tradition says Constantine proposed the word

  7. Council of Nicea • Arians wanted to say that Christ was of a different substance/nature than the Father • Semi-Arians wanted to use the word “homoiousios” (“of similar nature”) • Church argued there was not “one iota of difference” between Arian belief and Semi-Arian belief

  8. Council of Nicea • Passages in which Jesus states the Father is greater than He refer to His human nature • Passages in which Jesus states that He and the Father are equal refer to His divine nature • If Jesus were not God, He could not effect our salvation • Humans cannot pay the penalty for sin

  9. Results of the Council • All but two bishops signed the creedal statement of Nicaea • These two were exiled by the Emperor, • Constantine reversed his position in 328 and allowed the Arian bishops to return • Catholic bishops sent into exile (including Athanasius)

  10. Controversy Continues • In 336 Constantine said Arius’ position was correct • Constantine died in 337 and was baptized an Arian on his deathbed by Eusebius of Nicomedia, who was Patriarch of Constantinople • Sons ruled Empire: Constans I in the West and Constantius in the East (an Arian) • Constans murdered in 350 and Constantius became sole emperor

  11. Controversy Continues • With the support of ConstantiusArianism spread so much that St. Jerome stated “The whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian.” • St. Athanasius, bishop of Alexandria,became the prominent Catholic theologian opposing Arianism • Was exiled from his see several times totaling 17 years of exile

  12. Council of Constantinople

  13. Many synods and councils called over the 25 • years after Nicaea rehashing the Arian/ • Catholic debate • In 359, both the East and West convoked • synods (in Seleucia and Ariminum) and • Arian statements were approved with the • Emperor’s support

  14. Controversy Abates • Constantius died in 361 • Council of Paris affirmed a Catholic • statement • Semi-Arians returned to Catholicism after • seeing Arianism’s threat • After a short exile by Emperor Julian the • Apostate, Athanasius was able to return to • Alexandria

  15. Donatism • Context • Diocletian’s Persecutions were widespread. Many priests and bishops did worship the Roman gods rather than be imprisoned, tortured and/or martyred • Christianity made legal in 313. Many of these apostates are still alive • Donatists rejected the validity of sacraments confected by priests and bishops who had formally betrayed their faith or who were sinful • Re-baptized all those who joined them • Identified the Church solely with themselves

  16. Donatism • St. Augustine argued against the Donatists • Christ is the true minister of every sacrament, and He works through the human minister, even if that minster is in a state of sin • Sacraments are ex opereoperato • Donatists suppressed in 411, but not finally defeated until Islam conquered North Africa and suppressed the Church

  17. Nestorianism • Nestorius was patriarch of Constantinople • He was reacting to Apollinarianism. Apollinaris was a bishop and worked with Athansius to fight against Arianism. • Apollinaris could not understand how Jesus was God (unchangeable and incorruptible) and completely man (changeable and corruptible). • His solution was that Christ had a human body but not a human soul.

  18. Nestorianism • Nestorius was reacting to Arianism and Apollinarianism. • It was now clear that Christ had both a human and a divine nature • It was not clear how these two natures were united • So, he understood Christ be two persons, the divine Son of God and the human person Jesus • The divine Person dwelt within the human body • Said that Mary could not be called the Mother of God, but only the Mother of Christ • Condemned by the Council of Ephesus in 431 • Mary is Theotokus: “Mother of God”” • The relationship between Christ’s two natures was further clarified by the Council of Chalcedon in 451 • Heresy was prevalent ca. A.D. 351-451

  19. Pelagianism • Said that humans can be redeemed and saved not through grace, but through their own efforts • Denied the existence of Original Sin and its inherited nature • Sacraments are not necessary • Pelagius condemned at councils in Carthage and Milevis in 416 • Excommunicated by Pope St. Innocent I • Council of Carthage issued a teaching based upon St. Augustine’s positions on the Fall and Original Sin • Emperor Honorius denounced the Pelagians on 30 April 418 • Ephesus (431) condemned Pelagianism again