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What are NR’s?. Tangible substance Function or use. What is an environment?. A collection of NR’s in a defined area. What is a Ecosystem. All of the ecological processes in a n environment. What is wilderness?. Theoretically an undisturbed environment Big “W” Little “w”.

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What are NR’s?


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    Presentation Transcript
    1. What are NR’s? • Tangible substance • Function or use

    2. What is an environment? • A collection of NR’s in a defined area

    3. What is a Ecosystem • All of the ecological processes in a n environment

    4. What is wilderness? • Theoretically an undisturbed environment • Big “W” • Little “w”

    5. U. S. History and the Environment • Growth of the U.S. • Traditional view of NRs • 1890 closing of the frontier • Conservation and population

    6. Modern View of the Environment • Technology • Wilderness • Product of civilization • 3rd world

    7. European View of Wilderness • European landscape of the 1600s • Perception of wilderness • Basis of bias - Religion - Superstition and folklore

    8. Settlers View of the NA Wilderness • Paradise Myth • Reality • Not prepared to live “with” the env.

    9. Settlers’ Bias on the Frontier • Safety • Effect of wilderness • Doing God’s work – Manifest Destiny • Wilderness = waste

    10. Romanticism • Late 1700s – mid 1800s • Urban, educated, wealthy • Writers and artists • Coincides with the growth of sciences • Enthusiasm for wild places

    11. Romanticism • Sublimity • Awe • Deism • Great watchmaker theory • Primitivism • The noble savage

    12. Start of the American Environmental Movement • Europe = history, cities, culture • U.S. = Wilderness, NRs • American wilderness = American character • Manifest Destiny

    13. Hudson River School • American wild landscape as inspiration • Thomas Cole • First American art form • View of American artist, writer, etc

    14. Henry David Thoreau • 1817 – 1862 • “In wilderness is the preservation of man” 1851 • Philosopher • Emerson

    15. Transcendentalism • 2 levels of reality • Lower material object world • Higher spiritual truth world • Natural objects reflected spiritual truth if seen correctly • Must use imagination and intuition as opposed to rational understanding

    16. Thoreau’s Life • Early wilderness is best • Walden Pond • Trip to Maine • Later life philosophy – 1 foot in 1 foot out • Value of civilization • Value of wilderness for people - anthropocentric

    17. Call for Preservation • By mid 1800s regret loss of wilderness • References to environmental destruction • Harmonic theory • Tragedy of the commons • Changes in ownership and control of NRs • Hot Springs AR, Niagara Falls -Economic value – not environmental values

    18. Yellowstone • First reports of the region • 1870 expedition • 1871 expedition • Northern Pacific Railroad • 1872 Yellowstone Park Act • 1886 railroad debate

    19. Adirondack Park • Location/topography/climate/exploration • Impact of timbering • Commerce • Wealthy sportsmen

    20. Adirondack Park • 1885 Forest Preserve • 1892 Adirondack Park • 1894 Forever Wild clause • Today

    21. The Conservation Movement1890 -1970 • Closing of the frontier 1890 • Extend use of the remaining NRs • > population, urbanization, industrialization • American Culture and identity • Progressive movement

    22. The Progressive Movement1900 - 1920 • Governments responsibility • Justice and order • Counter monopolies

    23. John Muir1838 - 1914 • Wilderness protection and “preservation” • Value of nature for nature • Popular writer and speaker

    24. John Muir • His life • His philosophy – Preservation • Comparison to Thoreau • His impact

    25. Gifford Pinchot1865 - 1946 • His life • His philosophy – conservation • His impact

    26. Theodore Roosevelt1858 - 1919 • His life • His philosophy – Nationalism • His impact

    27. Conservation versus Preservation • Muir & Pinchot • Influence on Roosevelt • Forest Reserve Act of 1891 • Forest Management Act of 1897 • The future

    28. Changing View of Nature • Joe Knowles story • Why the change • No longer a need to “battle” nature • Visit nature for leisure • City view of pioneer qualities • Declining state of city environment

    29. Changing Perception of American Culture • Impact of immigration • Business values and city life • Growth of government and industry versus the individual

    30. Response to Changing Perception • Fredrick Jackson Turner 1896 • Robert Baden Powell 1907 • Theodore Roosevelt 1893, 1903 • William Kent @1908 • Result

    31. Hetch Hetchy • 1882 – 1913 • The issue • Pinchot, Muir, Roosevelt • Public opinion • 1909 vote

    32. Hetch Hetchy • Conservationist view of recreation • Preservationist response • Progressive view • William Kent • 1913 vote • Result

    33. Conservation to Environmentalism • 1921 – 1970 • Focus on management of NR interrelationships and processes • Federal government leadership • $ and planning • Large regional projects ex. TVA, CCC, AT

    34. Conservation to Environmentalism • Goals (by end of 1960s) - protect environmental quality - maintain physical base of all life - manage for non-material values * recreation * scenery * solitude

    35. Aldo Leopold 1886 - 1948 • Early life • Forest Service years • Gila NF 1924 • L-20 regulations 1929

    36. Leopold’s Benefits of Wilderness • Cultural heritage • The remnant • Primitive forms of recreation • Large wildlife habitat • For science

    37. Leopold’s Land Ethic • A Sand County Almanac 1949 • Enlarges the boundary • Changes the role • Value > than economic self interest • Ethical behavior

    38. Bob Marshall1901 - 1939 • His life • Ideas – action • Forest Service • U regulations • Wilderness Society 1935

    39. Marshall’s Benefits of Wilderness • Health • Self sufficiency • Esthetic • Mental

    40. Echo Park Dam • 1940s - 1955 • Colorado River Storage project plan • Dinosaur National Monument • Hetch Hetchy • David Brower • Howard Zahniser • Outcome

    41. Wilderness Act of 1964 • Role of Zahniser • Zahniser’s reasons for protection • Take the offensive • Establish a national system • Move to legislative protection • Outcome

    42. Grand Canyon Dams • Colorado River Storage project 1956 • Glen Canyon Dam 1963 – Lake Powell • Impact on the environmental movement

    43. Grand Canyon Dams cont. • Lower Colorado River – 2 dams 1963 • Result = flood 40 mi. GCNM, 13 mi. GCNP • GCNP act 1919

    44. Grand Canyon Dams cont. • David Brower • IRS controversy • No Hetch Hetchy mistakes • No compromise • H. Zahniser on progress

    45. Grand Canyon Dams Results • 1968 congress abandons project • Political support vs. public opinion • Illustrates the change from CM to EM • Sierra club membership • Wild and Scenic River act 1968 • Change from Hetch Hetchy

    46. New Environmentalism 1970 - Present • Wilderness being loved to death • Reasons for this trend - Technology change - Transportation change - Information growth - Intellectual revolution

    47. New Environmentalism cont. • 1970 Earth Day • Growth in Environmental laws - NEPA 1970 • Modern view of wilderness - Sigurd Olson - John Milton

    48. Changing Environmental Perception • Howard Zahniser • Spaceship earth • Counter culture break from the mainstream • Gary Snyder • Eddy Abbey

    49. Anthropcentrism • Mainstream or modern environmentalism • Shallow ecology • Traditional type support groups - Sierra Club 1892 – 600,000 members (passive) 2000 - Audubon Society 1905 - Wilderness Society 1936

    50. Biocentricism • New or ecocentric environmentalism • Deep ecology • Direct Action support groups - Friends of Earth 1969 - Green Peace 1969 - Earth First! 1981 – 12,000 members (active) 1988 - Earth Liberation Front (ELF) ?