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3D Mammography. Ernesto Coto Sören Grimm Stefan Bruckner M. Eduard Gröller Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms Vienna University of Technology. Motivation. Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today

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3d mammography l.jpg

3D Mammography

Ernesto Coto Sören Grimm

Stefan Bruckner M. Eduard Gröller

Institute of Computer Graphics and Algorithms

Vienna University of Technology


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Motivation

  • Breast cancer is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in women today

  • X-Ray Mammography is currently the primary method of early detection

  • Interpretation of Mammograms is difficult

  • Radiologists often use CAD for prompting

X-Ray Mammography


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Motivation

  • Capability of X-ray mammography is limited by its 2D representation

  • Other imaging modalities can obtain a full 3D representation of the breast

Rendering of MRI Mammography

showing cancer


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Introduction

  • Cancer is a disease that causes cells in the body to divide and reproduce abnormally without control

  • Breast cancer refers to a malignant tumor that has developed from breast cells


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Breast Anatomy

  • The breast has two main components: glandular tissue and connective tissue


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Suspicious Regions

  • Calcifications are tiny calcium deposits within the breast tissue

    • Microcalcifications

    • Macrocalcifications

  • Masses

    • Solid

    • Liquid (Cyst)


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Doctors Questions

  • Is there a tumor in the breast?

  • Is the tumor benign or malignant?

  • Is it a mass, a cyst or a microcalcification cluster?

  • What’s the location of the tumor?

  • What’s the size of the tumor?

  • How dense is the breast?

  • What’s the extension of the cancer?


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Imaging Technologies

  • X-Ray Mammography

  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)

  • Full-Field Digital Mammography

  • Nuclear Imaging

  • Tomosynthesis

  • Ultrasound

Ultrasound

X-Ray

MRI


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Dynamic Contrast Enhanced MRI

  • A tumor is usually well vascularized due to its strong growth

  • The absorption of contrast-medium in suspicious regions is perceptible

Without contrast

With contrast

Intravenous catheter


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Study of contrast agent’s flow

  • Type I: steady enhancement (straight or curved)

  • Type II: plateau of signal intensity

  • Type III: washout of signal

Benign lesion

Possible malignancy

Strongly suggest malignancy


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Answers using DCE-MRI

  • Is there a tumor in the breast?

    • Segment the contrast agent

  • Is the tumor benign or malignant?

    • Study of contrast agent’s flow

    • Extract features and use them to classify the tumors

  • Is it a mass, a cyst or a microcalcification cluster?

    • Quantify segmented region(s)

  • What’s the location of the tumor?

    • Estimate position of tumor’s center


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Answers using DCE-MRI

  • What’s the size of the tumor?

    • Calculate largest tumor diameter

    • Calculate volume based on segmented voxels

  • How dense is the breast?

    • Segment glandular tissue + quantification


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Answers using DCE-MRI

  • What’s the extension of the cancer?

    • Classify as invasive or non-invasive

Non-invasive

Invasive


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CAD for DCE-MRI

“Interactive Detection and Visualization of Breast Lesions Using Dynamic Contrast

Enhanced (DCE) MRI Volumes“, Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics, Elsevier,July 2004.



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Suggestions

  • How can me make this better???