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An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes. Presenters: Wei-Chih Hsu Professor : Ming-Puu Chen Date : 09/15/2008. Tapia, M. & Marsh, G. E. (2004). An instrument to measurement mathematics attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8 (2) <http://www.rapidintellect.com/

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an instrument to measure mathematics attitudes

An Instrument to Measure Mathematics Attitudes

Presenters: Wei-Chih Hsu

Professor : Ming-Puu Chen

Date : 09/15/2008

Tapia, M. & Marsh, G. E. (2004). An instrument to measurement mathematics attitudes. Academic Exchange Quarterly, 8(2) <http://www.rapidintellect.com/

AEQweb/cho25344l.htm>; 2004 Accessed 15.08.2004.

introduction
Introduction
  • This article
    • A report of the development of a new instrument to measure students’ attitudes toward mathematics.
    • Determine the underlying dimensions of the instrument by examining the responses of 545 students.
  • Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI).
    • The reliability coefficient alpha was .97
    • A maximum likelihood factor analysis with a varimax rotation yielded four factors
      • self-confidence;
      • value of mathematics;
      • enjoyment of mathematics;
      • motivation.
literature review 1 3
Literature review (1/3)
  • Conventional wisdom and some research suggest that
    • students with negative attitudes toward mathematics have performance problems simply because of anxiety.
  • One of the first instruments developed was the Dutton Scale (Dutton, 1954; Dutton & Blum, 1968), which measured “feelings” toward arithmetic.
  • Aiken (1974) constructed scales designed to measure enjoyment of mathematics and the value of mathematics.
  • Some researchers developed scales dealing exclusively with math anxiety.
    • the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale (Richardson & Suinn, 1972),
    • the Mathematics Anxiety Rating Scale–Revised (Plake & Parker, 1982),
    • the Mathematics Anxiety Questionanaire (Wigfield & Meece, 1988).
literature review 2 3
Literature review (2/3)
  • The Fennema-Sherman Mathematics Attitude Scales (1976)
    • One of the most popular instruments used in research over the last three decades.
    • Consist of a group of nine instruments:
      • (1) Attitude Toward Success in Mathematics Scale,
      • (2) Mathematics as a Male Domain Scale,
      • (3) Mathematics as a Mother Scale,
      • (4) Mathematics as a Father Scale,
      • (5) Teacher Scale,
      • (6) Confidence in Learning Mathematics Scale,
      • (7) Mathematics Anxiety Scale,
      • (8) Effectance Motivation Scale in Mathematics,
      • (9) Mathematics Usefulness Scale.
    • 108 items, and takes 45 minutes to complete.
    • Subsequent research has questioned the validity, reliability (Suinn and Edwards, 1982), and integrity of its scores (O’Neal, Ernest, McLean, &Templeton, 1988).
literature review 3 3
Literature review (3/3)
  • Melancon, Thompson, and Becnel (1994)
    • Isolated eight factors rather than nine, and they were unable to find a perfect fit with the model proposed by Fennema and Sherman.
  • Mulhern and Rae (1998)
    • Identified only six factors,
    • Suggested that the scales might not gauge what they were intended to measure.
  • Other researchers suggest
    • Students may find math to be simply unappealing or socially unacceptable, although they may actually have high aptitude.
  • The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) was developed.
    • Finding a need for a shorter instrument with a straightforward factor structure.
methodology 1 4
Methodology (1/4)
  • The Attitudes Toward Mathematics Inventory
    • The 49-items
      • Were constructed in the domain of attitudes toward mathematics to address factors reported to be important in research.
    • Items were constructed to assess
      • 1.Confidence(Goolsby, 1988; Linn & Hyde, 1989; Randhawa, Beamer, & Lundberg, 1993).
        • Measure students’ confidence and self-concept of their performance in mathematics.
      • 2. Anxiety(Hauge, 1991; Terwilliger & Titus, 1995).
        • Measure feelings of anxiety and consequences of these feelings.
      • 3. Value(Longitudinal Study of American Youth (1990).
        • Measure students’ beliefs on the usefulness, relevance and worth of mathematics in their life now and in the future.
      • 4. Enjoyment(Ma, 1997; Thorndike-Christ, 1991).
        • Measure the degree to which students enjoy working mathematics and mathematics classes.
methodology 2 4
Methodology (2/4)
      • 5. Motivation(Singh, Granville, & Dika, 2002; Thorndike-Christ, 1991).
        • Measure interest in mathematics and desire to pursue studies in mathematics.
      • 6. Parent/teacher expectations(Kenschaft, 1991; Dossey, 1992).
        • Measure the beliefs and expectations parents and teachers have of the students’ ability and performance in mathematics
  • Subjects
    • 545 high school students, 302 boys and 243 girls, enrolled in mathematics high school classes
      • 135 freshmen, 153 sophomores, 168 juniors, 84 seniors, and five 8th-grade students.
  • Procedure
    • Teachers administered a 49-item inventory to the subjects during their classes.
    • Four months later, the inventory was re-administered to 64 subjects who had previously taken the survey.
methodology 3 4
Methodology (3/4)
  • Materials
    • The ATMI was originally a 49-item scale.
    • The items were constructed using a Likert-scale format with the following anchors: 1 strongly disagree, 2 disagree, 3 neutral, 4 agree, and 5 strongly agree.
    • The score was the sum of the ratings.
  • Results
    • For scores on the 49 items alpha was .96, indicating a high degree of internal consistency for group analyses.
    • Of the 49 items, 40 had item-to-total correlationsabove .50, the highest being .82.
    • The mean and standard deviation of the total score were 169.74 and 32.06 respectively.
    • The standard error of measurement was 6.07.
discussion 1 2
Discussion (1/2)
  • Four subscales were identified as self-confidence, value, enjoyment, and motivation.
  • Scores on the 40-item scale
    • developed through factor analysis
      • showed good internal reliability, and test-retest reliability showed stability over time.
  • With only 40 items, the estimated time to complete the deletion of the parent/teacher items was surprising.
    • These items were dropped because of extremely low item-to-total correlations, which requires some consideration.
  • Attitudinal research should concern more than anxiety and competence.
    • It is clear that other factors are also important.
discussion 2 2
Discussion (2/2)
  • Far less attention has been directed to the investigation of student attitudes.
    • Although there is a body of research about attitudes toward mathematics, most of it is concerned only with anxiety.
  • Use of the ATMI may be important for teachers and researchers
    • Success or failure in math performance is greatly determined by personal beliefs.
    • Regardless of the teaching method used, students are likely to exert effort according to the effects they anticipate,
      • Personal beliefs about their abilities,
      • The importance they attach to mathematics,
      • Enjoyment of the subject matter,
      • The motivation to succeed.