1914-1918: The World at War. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School San Marcos, CA. Differing Viewpoints. “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. A War of Words.
Mr. CargileMission Hills High SchoolSan Marcos, CA
World War I and the events surrounding it brought a number of new terms into people’s everyday vocabularies.
The Balkans in 1878
1. By the late 19th cent. The once-powerful Ottoman Empire was in decline & losing the outlying provinces closest to Europe.
The Balkan Wars: 1912-1913
2. The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman Emp., sometime in cooperation, at other times as rivals.
The“Powder Keg”of Europe
3. In reaction, the Young Turks conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan, advocated centralized rule & Turkification of minorities, & carried out modernizing reforms.
4. The Turks turned to Germany for assistance & hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s armed forces.
Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.
3. When A-H declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, diplomats, statesmen, and monarchs quickly lost control of events.
4. The alliance system in combination with the rigidly scheduled mobilization plans meant that war was automatic.
Nicholas II [Rus]
Wilhelm II [Ger]
George V [Br]
Victor Emmanuel II [It]
Pres. Poincare [Fr]
Franz Josef [A-H]
Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914
Archduke Franz Ferdinand [heir to the Austrian throne] & His Family
2. Austria decided that Serbia should be harshly punished & issued an ultimatum
3. Germany offered Austria unconditional support & Russia backed the Serbs.
4. Fearful of falling behind in mobilization, all major powers rushed towards war.
Question: Why was speed so important to the Schlieffen Plan?
Possible Answer: Because the plan called for Germany to defeat France and then return its troops to the east before Russia fully mobilized.
It's a long way to Tipperary,
It's a long way to go;
It's a long way to Tipperary,
To the sweetest girl I know!
Farewell, Leicester Square,
It's a long, long way to Tipperary,
But my heart's right there!
1917: "I Want You for U.S. Army" lithograph. This image first appeared on the cover of a magazine called Leslie's Weekly with the title, "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?"
A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother
“No Man’s Land”
Instructions: Read the handout given by Mr. Cargile and don’t forget to analyze the document. Then answer the questions on the back. Yes, in complete sentences and yes, you need to answer all eight. If you need to use another sheet of paper for question eight feel free.
Turn to p-368 369
Question: Why was the Battle of Marne so significant?
Answer: It meant the ruin of the Schlieffen Plan and forced Germany to fight a war on two fronts.
Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]
British Sikh Mountain Gunners
3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade
French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916
How did Europe’s colonial subjects help in the war effort?
Answer: Some fought as soldiers, while others worked as laborers keeping the frontlines supplied.
“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917
Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.
Eddie Rickenbacher, US
Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]
Rene PaukFonck, Fr.
Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.
50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died
116,516 Americans Died
A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!