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1914-1918: The World at War. Mr. Cargile Mission Hills High School San Marcos, CA. Differing Viewpoints. “Family Feud” “Fall of the Eagles” “The War to End All Wars” “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”. A War of Words.

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1914 1918 the world at war

1914-1918:The Worldat War

Mr. CargileMission Hills High SchoolSan Marcos, CA

slide2

Differing Viewpoints

  • “Family Feud”
  • “Fall of the Eagles”
  • “The War to End All Wars”
  • “The War to ‘Make the World Safe for Democracy’”
slide3

A War of Words

World War I and the events surrounding it brought a number of new terms into people’s everyday vocabularies.

slide4

A War of Words

  • Armistice 5. propaganda
  • Blockade 6. reconnaissance
  • Convoy 7. ultimatum
  • Mandate 8. no-man’s land
slide6

A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans

The Balkans in 1878

1. By the late 19th cent. The once-powerful Ottoman Empire was in decline & losing the outlying provinces closest to Europe.

slide7

A. The Ottoman Empire & the Balkans

The Balkan Wars: 1912-1913

2. The European powers meddled in the affairs of the Ottoman Emp., sometime in cooperation, at other times as rivals.

slide8

Pan-Slavism: The Balkans, 1914

The“Powder Keg”of Europe

slide9

The Balkans in 1914

3. In reaction, the Young Turks conspired to force a constitution on the Sultan, advocated centralized rule & Turkification of minorities, & carried out modernizing reforms.

4. The Turks turned to Germany for assistance & hired a German general to modernize Turkey’s armed forces.

slide12

1. Militarism & Arms Race

Total Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers [Ger., A-H, It., Fr., Br., Rus.] in millions of £s.

slide13

2. The Alliance System

Triple Entente:

Triple Alliance:

slide14

2. The Alliance System

  • The major European countries were organized into two alliances:
      • The Triple Alliance (Germany, A-H, & Italy) and the Triple Entente (Br., France, & Russia).
  • The military alliance system was accompanied by inflexible mobilization plans that depended on rXrs to move troops according to precise schedules.
slide15

2. The Alliance System

3. When A-H declared war on Serbia on July 28, 1914, diplomats, statesmen, and monarchs quickly lost control of events.

4. The alliance system in combination with the rigidly scheduled mobilization plans meant that war was automatic.

slide16

Two Armed Camps!

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

slide17

The Major Players: 1914-17

Allied Powers:

Central Powers:

Nicholas II [Rus]

Wilhelm II [Ger]

George V [Br]

Victor Emmanuel II [It]

Enver Pasha[Turkey]

Pres. Poincare [Fr]

Franz Josef [A-H]

slide20

3. Economic & Imperial Rivalries

Colonial Rivalries: Asia in 1914

slide23

4. Aggressive Nationalism

  • Nationalism was deeply rooted in European culture, where it served to unite individual nations while undermining large multiethnic empires.
  • Because of the spread of nationalism, most people viewed was as a crusade for liberty or as revenges for past injustices; the well-to-do believed that war could heal the class divisions in their societies.
slide25

1. The Outbreak of War

  • The Outbreak of War
    • The weakening of the Ottoman Empire, the rise of independent & fiercely nationalists states in the Balkans, & Austrian attempts to expand in the area raised tension between Austria & Russian-backed Serbia.

Archduke Franz Ferdinand [heir to the Austrian throne] & His Family

slide26

The Assassination: Sarajevo

  • On June 28, 1914, a Serbian nationalist assassinated Ferdinand.

2. Austria decided that Serbia should be harshly punished & issued an ultimatum

3. Germany offered Austria unconditional support & Russia backed the Serbs.

4. Fearful of falling behind in mobilization, all major powers rushed towards war.

slide27

The Assassin:

GavriloPrincip

slide30

SHLEE-fuhn

Question: Why was speed so important to the Schlieffen Plan?

Possible Answer: Because the plan called for Germany to defeat France and then return its troops to the east before Russia fully mobilized.

slide32

Mobilization

  • Home by Christmas!
  • No major war in 50 years!
  • Nationalism!

It's a long way to Tipperary,

It's a long way to go;

It's a long way to Tipperary,

To the sweetest girl I know!

Goodbye, Piccadilly,

Farewell, Leicester Square,

It's a long, long way to Tipperary,

But my heart's right there!

slide33

Recruitment Posters

1917: "I Want You for U.S. Army" lithograph. This image first appeared on the cover of a magazine called Leslie's Weekly with the title, "What Are You Doing for Preparedness?"

slide35

Recruits of the Central Powers

A German Soldier Says Farewell to His Mother

Austro-Hungarians

slide50

Spies

  • “Mata Hari”
  • Real Name: Margareetha Geertruide Zelle
  • German Spy!
slide61

Trench Warfare

“No Man’s Land”

slide62

Verdun – February, 1916

  • German offensive.
  • Each side had 500,000 casualties.
slide63

The Somme – July, 1916

  • 60,000 British soldiers killed in one day.
  • Over 1,000,000 killed in 5 months.
slide64

Human-Environment Interaction:

Instructions: Read the handout given by Mr. Cargile and don’t forget to analyze the document. Then answer the questions on the back. Yes, in complete sentences and yes, you need to answer all eight. If you need to use another sheet of paper for question eight feel free.

  • Addendum:
  • You may write on this sheet of paper.
  • You may work in your groups to answer.
  • Be prepared to discuss in front of the class
slide65

The Battle of the Marne

Turn to p-368 369

slide66

Discussion Question

Question: Why was the Battle of Marne so significant?

Answer: It meant the ruin of the Schlieffen Plan and forced Germany to fight a war on two fronts.

slide78

Fighting in Africa

Black Soldiers in the German Schutztruppen[German E. Africa]

British Sikh Mountain Gunners

slide79

Fighting in Africa

3rd British Battalion, Nigerian Brigade

slide80

Fighting in Salonika, Greece

French colonial marine infantry fromCochin, China - 1916

discussion question
Discussion Question

How did Europe’s colonial subjects help in the war effort?

Answer: Some fought as soldiers, while others worked as laborers keeping the frontlines supplied.

slide83

The U.S. joins the allies.

  • The U.S. grew rich during the war by selling goods to Britain and France.
  • When the U.S. entered the war in 1917, businesses engaged in war production made tremendous profits.
slide93

The Airplane

“Squadron Over the Brenta”Max Edler von Poosch, 1917

slide94

The Flying Aces of World War I

FrancescoBarraco, It.

Eddie “Mick”Mannoch, Br.

Eddie Rickenbacher, US

Manfred vonRichtoffen, Ger.[The “RedBaron”]

Rene PaukFonck, Fr.

Willy Coppens deHolthust, Belg.

slide98

FlameThrowers

GrenadeLaunchers

slide99

Poison Gas

Machine Gun

slide107

1918 Flu Pandemic: Depletes All Armies

50,000,000 – 100,000,000 died

slide112

Turkish Genocide Against Armenians

A Portent of Future Horrors to Come!