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Epidemiology Of Dental Caries

Epidemiology Of Dental Caries

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Epidemiology Of Dental Caries

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  1. Epidemiology Of Dental Caries N.A.GH

  2. Dental Caries • Dental caries is an infectious, communicable disease resulting in destruction of tooth structure by acid-forming bacteria found in dental plaque, in the presence of sugar

  3. Concepts of caries etiology Microorganism Tooth Substrate Time

  4. Current concepts of Dental Caries The development of dental caries is a dynamic process of demineralization of the dental hard tissues by the products of bacterial metabolism, alternating with periods of remineralization

  5. Demineralization Remineralization Cyclic Process of Decay Bacteria plus food makes the saliva very acidic within 5 minutes Saliva is normal 30 minutes after eating

  6. Demineralization / Remineralization

  7. Demineralization / Remineralization

  8. Continuo……. Etiology of dental caries: • Tooth susceptibility • Bacterial plaque • Carbohydrates • Oral sugar clearance • Time • Saliva flow & pH

  9. Continuo……. Epidemiology of dental caries: Host Factors • Age • Sex • Race • Emotional disturbance

  10. Agent Factors * Streptococcus mutans…………….initiation of dental caries mutans plus sucrose reduces the pH in the plaque to a critical level of 5.0-5.5, which can overcome the buffering capacity of saliva and result in demineralization of enamel * Lactobacillus ……………progression of dental caries Lactobacillus counts are significantly higher in patients with open caries lesions

  11. Environmental factors • sunshine • temperature • fluoride • nutrition • social factors • oral environment

  12. Occlusal caries Root caries

  13. Smooth surface

  14. acute arrested

  15. Continuo……. Dental caries of primary teeth: Sequence of caries in primary dentition is as follows: *mandibular molars followed by maxillary molars, followed by maxillary anterior teeth. * Proximal caries progress more rapidly than occlusal caries and cause higher percentage of pulp exposure. * Caries in lower incisors is unusual except in rampant caries.

  16. Dental caries of permanent teeth: 1- Mandibular first and second molars. 2- Maxillary first and second molars. 3- Mandibular second premolars, maxillary first and second premolars, maxillary centrals and laterals. 4- Maxillary canines and mandibular first premolars. 5- Mandibular centrals, lateral incisors and canines.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF DENTAL CARIES Counts : Number of persons involved by the disease(presence or absence). Proportion : The prevalence of the disease can express as percentage Number per 1oo persons

  18. Rates :Stander unit of population is often used - 1:1000 (10,100,100,10.000……) Intensity: Or severity by using an index

  19. What is the index ? Is a graduated numerical scale with definite upper and lower limits describing the relative status of a population . Irreversible………… caries Reversible……………. gingivitis

  20. MEASUREMENT OF DENTAL CARIES 1- Methods of examination Type 1…………mirror ,probe, full mouth x-ray, study model, illumination ( complete examination) Type 2…………mirror ,probe, bitewing x-ray, illumination Type 3…………mirror ,probe, illumination Type 4…………, tongue depressor , illumination (screening)

  21. Diagnostic criteria -WHO criteria - White spots - Discoloured ,rough areas, softening , undermining

  22. Indices for dental caries For permanent teeth: DMF index D……………. Decayed M ……………. Missed F ……………. ...Filled ( DMFT) OR ( DMFS)

  23. For primary teeth: - def index - dmf index - df index

  24. Number of d + m + f surfaces dmfs Index = ——————————— Total number of primary teeth Number of d + m + f tooth dmf Index = ——————————— Total number of primary teeth