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Minerals. Minerals. Naturally occurring Inorganic Crystalline solid (atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern) Definite chemical composition. Why do we study Minerals?. Starting point for all geologic formations and activity

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Presentation Transcript
  • Naturally occurring
  • Inorganic
  • Crystalline solid (atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern)
  • Definite chemical composition
why do we study minerals
Why do we study Minerals?
  • Starting point for all geologic formations and activity
  • Rocks and molten rock (lava, magma) are what shape the surface of our planet
minerals can be elements or compounds
Single elements that are also minerals are called native elements (ex: copper)

Most minerals are compounds made from different elements

8 most common elements:

Oxygen, Silicon, Aluminum, Iron, Calcium, Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium

Minerals Can Be Elements or Compounds
how minerals form
How Minerals Form
  • The cooling and hardening of magma
  • When water containing dissolved ions evaporate
  • Sustained pressure, heat, or chemical action can change minerals into other minerals
mineral s crystalline structure
Mineral’s Crystalline Structure
  • All minerals are crystalline (all of their atoms are arranged in a repeating pattern)
  • The atoms pattern can be used to identify a mineral
  • Crystal system controls the way a mineral forms and breaks
crystal system models
Crystal System Models
  • Color the shapes according the colors listed below. A:Red B: Blue C: Green D:Yellow E: Orange F: White
  • Cut them out
  • Fold them along all the black lines
  • Put glue on the small tabs and CAREFULLY glue them into the shapes they fold into.
  • You will need the small images of the crystals. Cut them and secure them in a safe place. Do NOT lose them!
the 6 crystal systems 1
The 6 Crystal Systems: #1
  • Cubic System
  • 3 axes of equal length that intersect at 90 degree angles
  • Example
    • Halite (Rock Salt)
the six crystal systems 2
The Six Crystal Systems #2
  • Orthorhombic System
  • Three axis of different length that intersect at 90 degree angles
  • Examples:
    • Sulfur, Topaz
the six crystal systems 3
The Six Crystal Systems #3
  • Tetragonal System
  • Three axes, 2 of the same length, one that differs
  • Examples:
    • Wulfenite
the six crystal systems 4
The Six Crystal Systems #4
  • Triclinic System
  • Three axes of unequal length that intersect at oblique angles.
  • Example:
    • Turquoise
the six crystal systems 5
The Six Crystal Systems #5
  • Hexagonal System
  • Three horizontal axes that are the same length, and a vertical axis that is longer then the horizontal axes.
  • Example:
    • Quartz
    • Graphite
the six crystal systems 6
The Six Crystal Systems #6
  • Monoclinic System
  • Three unequal axes, two intersect at 90 degrees, the third is oblique to the other two
  • Example:
    • Gypsum, Borax
physical properties
Physical Properties
  • Color: The color as it appears to the naked eye
  • Not effective in identifying minerals
    • Some are similar in color
    • Others can have their color changed
    • Some come in multiple colors
physical properties1
Physical Properties
  • Streak:the color of the powder a mineral leaves after rubbing it on a streak plate.
  • More effective than color because the streak is often different than the color, and can be distinct to the mineral
properties cont d
Properties Cont’d
  • Luster: the way a mineral shines and reflects light
  • Metallic Luster: Shines like a polished metal
    • Ex: Pyrite, Galena, Hematite, Magnetite
  • Non-Metallic: Anything non-metallic.
    • Ex: Quartz, Fluorite, Sulfur, Opal
mohs hardness scale
Hardness: A mineral’s resistance to being scratched

Moh’s Hardness Scale: The hardness of minerals relative to each other/scratching implements.

These are labeled 1-10, 1 being the softest, 10 the hardest.

Mohs Hardness Scale
  • Cleavage: the tendency of a mineral to split along a certain plane or planes
  • Not all minerals have cleavage
  • We describe it in numbers of planes and angles of intersection
  • Fracture: When minerals don’t break along certain planes


  • Conchoidal: Shell Like and smooth
  • Hackly: Jagged Edges
  • Fibrous: Breaks into strands
special properties
Special Properties
  • Texture: Having a unique feel to the touch (talc, graphite)
  • Effervescence: Reacts by bubbling when exposed to hydrochloric acid (calcite, dolomite)
  • Taste: What does it taste like?… Duh… (Halite/Rock Salt)
special properties cont d
Special Properties Cont’d
  • Smell: (Sulfur smells like eggs)
  • Magnetism: Mineral has magnetic properties (Magnetite)
  • Density: the amount of water it displaces (Metallic lusters are generally denser)
  • Phosphorescence: Does it glow under black light? (Fluorite)
today finish dummies guide
Today = Finish Dummies Guide
  • Make sure all information is complete.
  • All charts and test are complete.
  • Accurately identify minerals A, B, C, D using your notes and classification chart.
the silicates
The Silicates
  • Silicates: Compound of the elements Silicon and Oxygen
  • 90% of minerals are silicates
  • Form from the cooling of Lava/Magma
  • The Si and O join to form Silicon-Oxygen Tetrahedrons
silicate minerals
Silicate Minerals:


  • Multiple forms of quartz (rose, amethyst, crystal)
  • Conchoidal Fracture
  • Mohs Hardness: 7
  • Luster: Glassy
silicate minerals continued
Silicate Minerals Continued…


  • The most abundant family of minerals in earth crust
  • Plagioclase or Orthoclase Feldspar
  • 2-3 directions of cleavage
  • Mohs Hardness: 6
  • Luster: Pearly
silicate minerals continued1
Silicate Minerals Continued…

Mica 2 Types

  • Muscovite mica (white mica), and Biotite mica (black or brown)
  • One distinct Cleavage (makes long sheets)
  • Mohs Hardness: 2.5
  • Luster:Pearly
silicate minerals continued2
Silicate Minerals Continued…


  • The softest mineral, talcum powder is pure ground up talc
  • 1 direction of cleavage
  • Mohs Hardness: 1
  • Luster:Pearly/Oily
silicate minerals continued3
Silicate Minerals Continued…


  • Olive green silicate
  • Belongs to a family where silicates bond to metal ions, ocassionally found in meteors
  • Conchoidal Fracture
  • Mohs Hardness: 6.5
  • Luster: Glassy
silicate minerals continued4
Silicate Minerals Continued…


  • A very common gemstone
  • Conchoidal Fracture
  • Hardness: 6-7.5
  • Luster: Vitreous to resinous
other mineral groups
Other Mineral Groups
  • Carbonates
  • 2nd most common mineral group
  • Contains the elements carbon and oxygen and one or more other metallic elements
  • EX. Calcite, Dolomite
carbonate minerals
Carbonate Minerals


  • Composed of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)
  • 3 directions of cleavage
  • Mohs Hardness: 3
  • Luster: Glassy
carbonate minerals1
Carbonate Minerals


  • Composed of a Magnesium Carbonate (MgCO3)
  • 3 directions of cleavage
  • Mohs Hardness: 3.5 to 4.0
  • Luster: Glassy/Vitreous
other mineral groups1
Other Mineral Groups
  • Halides:
  • Contain a halogen ion plus one of more elements
  • Formed from salt water evaporation
  • EX. Halite, Fluorite
other mineral groups2
Other Mineral Groups
  • Sulfides/ Sulfates:
  • Contain the element sulfur and one other element, often metallic
  • EX. Gypsum, Pyrite
bellringer quiz
Bellringer Quiz
  • 1. ______The way a mineral reflects or “reacts” to light
  • 2. ______A mineral’s resistance to being scratched
  • 3. ______ Includes taste, effervesence, smell, phosphorescence
  • 4. ______Describes the way minerals naturally split
  • 5. ______The color of a minerals powder when rubbed across an unglazed porcelain plate
  • 6. ______When minerals don’t break along cleavage lines
  • 7. ______Considered to be a not-reliable way to I.D. minerals
  • 8. Define mineral!
  • 9. Why are color AND luster unreliable for IDing minerals?
other mineral groups3
Other Mineral Groups
  • Oxides: Contain oxygen and one or more other element usual a metal.
  • Can form from magma or from weathering
  • EX. Hematite (Rust), Corundum, Magnetite
other mineral groups4
Other Mineral Groups
  • Native Elements:elements that exists in relative pure forms
  • Many form from hydrothermal solutions
  • EX. Diamond and Graphite (carbon), silver, gold, copper, sulfur
mineral uses
Mineral uses
  • Talc – talcum powder
  • Quartz – Glass, Sand Paper, Amethyst Gems
  • Diamond – Gems, drills
  • Beryl – Emerald Gems
  • Corundum – Ruby Gems
  • Gypsum – Drywall
  • Halite – Rock Salt
  • Copper – Wire, Jewelry, etc…
  • Galena - Lead ore
iron oxide and sulfates
Iron Oxide and Sulfates


-A mineral consisting of a metal element combined with oxygen


-A mineral consisting of a metal element combined with sulfur

iron oxide minerals
Iron Oxide Minerals


  • The most common Iron Oxide mineral
  • Red to brown streak on streak plate
  • Mohs Hardness: 5 to 6
  • Luster:Metallic (sometimes earthy if it gets worn down)
iron oxide minerals1
Iron Oxide Minerals


  • A black magnetic iron oxide
  • Mineral has magnetic properties
  • Black streak
  • Mohs Hardness: 5.5 to 6.5
  • Luster: Metallic to Dull
iron sulfides
Iron Sulfides


  • An Iron Sulfide (Fe3SO4)
  • Occurs in 6 and 12 sided crystals
  • “Fools Gold”
  • Greenish-Black streak
  • Mohs Hardness: 6.0
  • Luster: Metallic