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Gas quality and interoperability

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  1. Gas qualityandinteroperability

  2. NEL Gasunie – a european company • 15.100 km Gas grid-3.200 in Germany • Transported volume125 Mrd m³/a (D: 24 Mrd m³/a) • Connects the european pipeline systems ofD, NL, N, B, DK, GB, RU • 1.800 Employees, 250 in Germany

  3. Power to Gas activities • First participation of Gasunie Deutschland at „DENA Strategieplattform 2012/13 Power-to-Gas“ and participation at Workshop „Roadmap“ of “DENA Strategieplattform 2012/13” for the political establishment of P2G • Gasunie Deutschland is member in DVGW power to gas activities “Koordinierungsausschuss Cluster „Power to Gas”” for technical questions and guideline setting • Presence at various other P2G-Events (EDGaR, DBI) • First planning experiences in a P2G Project (grid connection, metering and compressor station)"

  4. The influence of H2 on important gas parameters • Forburningvalueandthewobbenumber high amountsofhydrogen areuncritical in themostcases • The lowerdensitylinealreadygetspassedat an amountof 3 Vol.-% H2 assumingrussianH-Gas • Forthemethanenumberconcentrationsunder 10 % areuncritical Source: E.ON Ruhrgas AG, 2011

  5. Source: DVGW, 2013

  6. Pipelines (Steel) • Concentrations of 50 % H2 have no effects on crack growth • PIM is recommended for concentrations over 10 Vol.-% H2 • Further research with more materials is needed Pipelines (plastic material) • The permeation of H2 is related to safety aspects uncritical • H2 has no influence on the durability of the distribution network Gas-turbines • Right now manufacturers recommend just 1 – 3 Vol.-% • Laboratory tests were successful with concentrations to 9 Vol.-% Compressors • Because of the lower heating value (6 % less if 10 % H2 is blended), higher compressor power is needed if the same amount of energy should be delivered

  7. Cavern storages • in the past gas with 55 Vol.-% H2 was stored - no problems occurred • further research is needed for special materials, components and cement • the H2 tolerance of every cavern should be examined separately Pore storages • experience shows problems regarding to the generation of H2S and corrosion in humid ambiance • further research is needed for the whole storage process • in the past the storage of H2 in pore storages was practiced

  8. Gas metering equipment • diaphragm and turbine-wheel meters are uncritical till concentrations of 30 Vol.-% H2 • ultrasonic meters need to be adjusted • Long time stress tests have to be done and measuring inaccuracy has to be monitored Quantity transformers • Concentrations up to 10 Vol.-% are uncritical • Corrections are needed subsequent for higher concentrations than 10 Vol.-%

  9. Gas-phase chromatograph • at higher concentrations than 0,2 Vol.-% H2 technical modification is needed •  new separation column or different carrier gas (Argon, not Helium) Pressure regulating and metering station • these stations are designed for high concentrations of H2 • experiences in handling of pressure regulating and metering stations with coke oven gas (up to 67 Vol.-% H2) Odorization • In the past odorization was used for gases with high H2 concentration • New odorants need to be analyzed

  10. Seals and connections • no problems with H2 known • tests for single parts are recommended House installations and valves • designed for gases with high amount of hydrogen (G260) • up to 50 Vol.-% H2 seems to be possible Gas flow detectors • applicable for different H2 concentrations • practical research needed for closing volume flow, secured length and leakage

  11. Gas engines • up to 8 Vol.-% H2 possible without adjustment • even better efficiency and reduction of emissions • With adjustments up to 20 % are possible (compliance with methane number) • Stirling motors: malfunctions over 23 Vol.-% H2 Tanks - Critical value is 2 Vol.-% H2 (DIN 51624) - Influence of H2 on tanks is still under research

  12. House appliances • Studies showed stable burning up to 20 Vol.-%, up to 40 Vol. -% at some new gas burners • Huge reduction of emissions like CO, CO2 and NOX • There can be old appliances that get problems with concentrations over 10 Vol.-% • Therefore further tests with more types under real conditions are currently running Industry • Fluctuating gas quality can be a problem – further research has to be done • For sensible appliances it can be necessary to build gas-phase chromatograph or oxygen measuring probes • Even the removal of hydrogen can be necessary

  13. Fuel cells • Problems with fluctuating gas quality but not with high concentrations of H2 • Further research needed Combined heat and power stations • efficient operation with very low heating value or blended air possible (compliance with methane number) • just small influence on flames and NOX emissions up to concentrations of 15 Vol.-% • no problems in new stations up to 20 Vol.-%

  14. Source: DVGW, 2013

  15. Conclusion • In general, the gas infrastructure should stand H2-concentrations of 10 Vol.-% • Research relating to critical parts like storages, gas turbines, gas tanks and the industry is under progress • Result could be, that critical parts of the in infrastructure are not applicable for H2 - their modification can be expensive • The different gas qualities have to be checked with the international trading partners • Regulatory conditions and market models have to be created

  16. Thank you