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This module covers the following four orders: • APODIFORMES — swifts hummingbirds & owlet nightjars • TROGONI PowerPoint Presentation
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This module covers the following four orders: • APODIFORMES — swifts hummingbirds & owlet nightjars • TROGONI - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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This module covers the following four orders: • APODIFORMES — swifts hummingbirds & owlet nightjars • TROGONIFORMES — trogons • CORACIIFORMES — rollers, kingfishers, & allies • BUCEROTIFORMES — rollers, kingfishers, & allies. Hummingbirds, Swifts & Owlet-Nightjars.

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slide1

This module covers the following four orders:

• APODIFORMES —swifts hummingbirds & owlet nightjars

• TROGONIFORMES — trogons

• CORACIIFORMES —rollers, kingfishers, & allies

• BUCEROTIFORMES —rollers, kingfishers, & allies

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Hummingbirds, Swifts & Owlet-Nightjars

Green-crowned Brilliant, Costa Rica

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*ORDER APODIFORMES — Swifts, Hummingbirds & Owlet-Nightjars — 4 families; 437 species

Range: worldwide

Morphology/ecology:highly aerial, long wings, tiny feet;

Behavior: all hummingbirds lay 2 eggs, only females parental; swifts monogamous, biparental

Taxonomic notes: owlet nightjars used to be in with nightjars and allies (Caprimulgiformes) but are now in this order as a basal group

Important families:

*Apodidae: swifts

*Trochilidae: hummingbirds (New World only)

Aegothelidae: owlet-nightjars

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Family Apodidae: swifts

dull colored aerial insectivores

bill short, flattened, with broad gape

© Mike Danzenbaker

White-throated Swift, California

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Family Trochilidae: hummingbirds

bill very long & slender, straight or decurved nectarvores, males are often colorful with patches of iridescence

Green Violetear, Costa Rica

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Family Aegothelidae:owlet-nightjars

baby

Austrailian Owlet-Nightjar

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Trogons & Quetzals

Resplendent Quetzal, Costa Rica

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*ORDER TROGONIFORMES — Trogons — 1 family; 39 spp

Range: Pantropical

Morphology/ecology:colorful arboreal birds of tropical and subtropical forests; big head & short neck; tail long, graduated, square-tipped; feet small, heterodactyl

Behavior: nest in cavities in trees, or in a couple of species, in wasp or termite nests

Other notes: quetzals have spectacular long upper tail coverts that give them the appearance of having long tails

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wild avocados

Quetzal food

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Kingfishers & Allies

Grey-headed Kingfisher, Kenya

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*ORDER CORACIIFORMES — Rollers, Kingfishers, & Allies — 6 families; 148 species

Range: worldwide

Morphology/ecology:diverse group of mostly arboreal birds with large heads, large prominent bills; feet generally small, syndactyl; often colorful plumage

Behavior: cavity nesters; altricial young, cooperative breeding (helpers) is common

Other notes: Interesting feathers in some groups (racquets on motmot tails)

Taxonomic notes: hornbills & allies removed from this order and placed in their own order (Bucerotiformes)

Important families:

*Alcedinidae: kingfishers

Momotidae: motmots

Meropidae: bee-eaters

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Family Alcedinidae: kingfishers

worldwide;

wetland birds that dive for fish or dry area birds that eat herps, etc

Malachite Kingfisher, Kenya

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Family Motmotidae:

motmots

Neotropics;

cool racquets on the tail, used for anti-predation & mating

Turquoise -browed Motmot

Costa Rica

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Family Meropidae: bee-eaters

Old World;

eat bees;

many are cooperative breeders

White-fronted Bee-eater, Kenya

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*ORDER BUCEROTIFORMES — Hornbills Hoopoes & Allies — 4 families; 61 species

Range: Asia & Africa

Morphology/ecology:diverse group of mostly arboreal birds with large heads, large prominent bills; feet generally small, syndactyl feet

Behavior: cavity nesters; altricial young, cooperative breeding (helpers) is common

Other notes: Interesting feathers in some groups (eyelashes on hornbills, erectile crest on hoopoe)

Taxonomic notes: new order, used to be part of Coraciformes

Important families:

*Bucerotidae: hornbills

Bucorvidae: ground hornbills

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Family Bucerotidae: hornbills

Africa & Asia;

big canoe -shaped bills on these fruit and insect eaters convergent with toucans

Photo Tim Laman

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Male hornbills seal their females in the nest with mud for the entire nesting period

close up of a cavity to show mud and narrow slit that is left

Photo Tim Laman

foot morphology p l 72 73
Foot Morphology (P & L 72-73)

Anisodactyl

basic plan

Zygodactyl

toe 4 is rotated to rear

Heterodactyl

toe 2 is rotated to rear

Syndactyl

toes 2 & 3 partially fused

Pamprodactyl

toes 1 and 4 can both rotate back

foot morphology p l 72 7328
Foot Morphology (P & L 72-73)

Palmate

Totipalmate

Semipalmate

Lobate

Raptorial