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AP EXAM REVIEW ! Part I. #1 The 17 th and early 18 th centuries. Native Americans in Pre-Columbian North America. Pre-Columbian Period – the period before Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World North America was populated by Native Americans, AKA American Indians

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native americans in pre columbian north america
Native Americans in Pre-Columbian North America
  • Pre-Columbian Period – the period before Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World
  • North America was populated by Native Americans, AKA American Indians
  • Important to understand the clash of cultures that occurred between the European settlers and the Native Americans.
  • Most historians believe that Native Americans are descendants of Asian migrants who traveled through Siberia (modern Russia), across the frozen Bering Strait, then through Alaska into modern Canada, the U.S. and Mexico
    • Between 20,000 and 40,000 years ago
native americans in pre columbian north america1
Native Americans in Pre-Columbian North America
  • At the time of Columbus's arrival, between 1 million and 5 million Native Americans lived in modern Canada and U.S., 20 million in Mexico
  • Native Americans were called “Indians” because that was the name given to them by Columbus because he believed he had reached the East Indies (he had in fact landed in the Bahamas)
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 spain
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Spain!
  • Columbus was not the first to land in new world, Europeans reached North America around 1,000.
  • Columbus’s arrival marked the beginning of the Contact Period, which Europe sustained contact with the Americas and introduced an exchange, called the Columbian Exchange:
    • Plants
    • Animals
    • Foods
    • Communicable diseases
    • Ideas
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 spain1
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Spain!
  • Unlike previous explorers (Leif Eriksson, BjarniHerjolfson, other Norse explorers), Columbus is better remembered because he arrived at a time when Europe had the resources and techonology to establish colonies far from home
    • Colonies – territory settled and controlled by a foreign power)
  • During the next century, Spain was THE colonial power in the Americas
  • Dominated through incredible ruthlessness with which the conquistadors conquered the Native Americans, while the strength of the Spanish Armada (the navy) made it difficult for other countries to sent their own expeditions
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 england
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): England!
  • 1588 – English navy defeated the Armada, France and England were able to colonize in North America
  • Sir Walter Raleigh – Sponsored a settlement on Roanoke Island (now part of NC)
    • Disappeared in 1590 – “The Lost Colony”
  • Tried again in 1607 – Jamestown
  • Founded by a joint-stock company – The Virginia Company
    • Named for the virgin Queen Elizabeth
  • Colony almost met the same fate as “The Lost Colony”, but survived thanks to Captain John Smith.
    • “He who will not work shall not eat”
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 england1
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): England!
  • Jamestown would not have survived without the help of a group of local tribes called the Powhatan Confederacy, who taught the English what crops to plant and how to plant them
  • 1614 – Pocahontas married John Rolfe, easing tension between natives and settlers
  • Jamestown flourished with the introduction of the cash crop tobacco
    • The success largely determined the fate of the Virginia region
  • Tobacco required vast acreage and depletes the soil, requiring rapid expansion
  • New settlements sprang up, area became known as the Chesapeake, modern day Virginia and Maryland
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 england2
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): England!
  • Many who migrated to the Chesapeake did so for financial reasons
    • England was overpopulated, leading to famine, disease, and poverty
  • Indentured servitude was attractive
    • In return for free passage, indentured servants typically promised seven years’ labor, after which they received their freedom
    • More than 75% of English migrants were indentured servants
    • Nearly half of all indentured servants didn’t survive their period of servitude.
  • 1618 Virginia Company introduced the “headright” system
    • “headright” – about 50 acres of land, granted to potential settlers
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 france
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): France!
  • Colonized Quebec City in 1608
  • Had a much lighter impact than the Spanish or English
  • Helped improve the fur trade, which became the rage in Europe
  • Ultimately played a significant role in the French and Indian War (1754-1763), but didn’t do much else
  • Edict of Nantes (1598) granted religious freedom to the Huguenots (French Protestants)
    • If not for the Edict, the Huguenots might have fled their mother country just as the Puritans would flee England in the 1600s)
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 pilgrims and ma bay company
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Pilgrims and MA Bay Company!
  • 16th century, English Calvinists led a Protestant movement called Puritanism in England
    • Name derived from the desire to “purify” the Anglican Church of Roman Catholic practices
  • English monarchs persecuted the Protestants, so Puritans began to look for a new place to practice their faith
  • Separatists set sail for Virginia on the Mayflower, went off course and landed in modern-day Massachusetts
    • Separatists – group of Puritans that were so appalled at the corruption of the English church that they abandoned it
  • Because winter was approaching, they settled where they landed. This settlement was called “Plymouth”
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 pilgrims and ma bay company1
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Pilgrims and MA Bay Company!
  • While on board the Mayflower, the Pilgrims signed an agreement for their basic legal system of the colony – “The Mayflower Compact”
    • Important because it created a legal authority and an assembly, and also asserted that the government’s power derives from the consent of the governed and not from God (like monarchists believed)
  • Pilgrims (like in Jamestown) received life-saving assistance from local Native Americans
  • Squanto – English speaking, became an interpreter for the Pilgrims and taught them how to best plant in their new home
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 pilgrims and ma bay company2
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Pilgrims and MA Bay Company!
  • 1629 – Massachusetts Bay was established by Congregationalists
    • Congregationalists – Puritans who wanted to reform the Anglican Church from within
  • Governor John Winthrop led The Great Puritan Migration to this region.
  • Winthrop urged the colonists to be a “city upon a hill” – a model for others to look up to
  • All Puritans believed they had a covenant (binding agreement) with God. Government was to be a covenant among the people; work was to serve a communal ideal, and the church was always to be served.
    • This is why both Separatists and Congregationalists did not tolerate religious freedom in their colonies EVEN THOUGH THEY BOTH EXPERIENCED AND FLED RELIGIOUS PERSECUTION!!
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 pilgrims and ma bay company3
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Pilgrims and MA Bay Company!
  • Two major incidents during the first half of the 17th century demonstrated Puritan religious intolerance
  • Roger Williams, a minister in the Salem Bay settlement, taught a number of controversial principles, among them that the Church and state should be separate
    • He was banished and then moved to Rhode Island, where he started a colony based on religious freedom
  • Anne Hutchinson, believed that faith and God’s grace (as opposed to the observance of moral law and performance of good deeds) should suffice to earn one a place among the “elect”
    • She was tried for heresy, convicted, and banished
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 new england vs chesapeake
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): New England vs. Chesapeake

New England

Chesapeake

Single males emigrated

Due to tobacco needing so much land, those in the Chesapeake lived in smaller, more spread-out farming communities

Religious, but not as much as New England

More about money than religion

  • Entire families emigrated
  • Climate was more hospitable
  • Tended to live longer, have larger families
  • Stronger sense of community
  • More religious than Chesapeake, settled near meetinghouses
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 other early colonies
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Other Early Colonies
  • As Massachusetts began to grow, settlers began looking for new places to live
  • Connecticut Valley – area inhabited by the Pequots
    • Members of Massachusetts Bay Colony retaliated to Pequot violence by burning their main village and killing 400. Became known as the PEQUOT WAR
  • Maryland – granted to Ceilius Calvert (Lord Baltimore)
    • Declared Maryland a haven of religious tolerance for all Christians
  • New York – Royal gift to James, the king’s brother.
    • Dutch republic, largest commercial power during 17th century and economic rival of the British
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 other early colonies1
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Other Early Colonies
  • Quakers received their own colony. William Penn, a Quaker, was a close friend of King Charles II. Charles granted Penn what became Pennsylvania
  • Charles viewed the Quakers as dangerous radicals, but honored the two men’s friendship (and Charles’s desire to export the Quakers to someplace far from England
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 slavery
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Slavery!
  • Extensive use of African slaves in the American colonies began when colonists from the Caribbean settled the Carolinas
    • Until this, indentured servitude satisfied labor requirements
  • As tobacco and, in South Carolina, rice farming became more wide-spread, more laborers were needed than indentured servitude could provide
  • Events such as Bacon’s Rebellion (coming later in Major Events) had also shown landowners that it was not in their best interest to have an abundance of landless, young, white males in their colonies
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 slavery1
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Slavery!
  • Enslaving Native Americans was difficult
    • They knew the land, so they could easily escape and were difficult to find
    • Europeans brought diseases that decimated Natives, wiping out 85-95% of the native population.
  • Southern landowners turned increasingly to African slaves for labor
  • Unlike Native Americans, they did not know the land, so were less likely to escape.
  • They were from different regions of Africa, so they were unable to communicate with each other
  • Furthermore, English considered dark skin a sign of inferiority, making it easier to rationalize their enslavement
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 slavery2
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Slavery!
  • The shipping route that brought the slaves to the Americas was called the Middle Passage
    • Middle Passage – middle leg of the triangular trade route among the colonies, Europe, and Africa.
  • Conditions for the Africans aboard were brutally inhumane, so intolerable that some committed suicide by throwing themselves overboard.
  • Many died of sickness
  • Not unusual for one-fifth to die on board
  • Most reached the New World, where conditions were only slightly better
early colonization of the new world 1492 1650 slavery3
Early Colonization of the new world (1492-1650): Slavery!
  • Slavery flourished in the South.
  • Because of the short growing season, The Chesapeake and Carolina’s farmed labor-intensive crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo, and plantation owners bought slaves for this arduous work
  • Slavery never took hold in the North because those slaves who wound up in the North were mostly used as domestic servants.
  • In both regions, only the very wealthy owned slaves.
  • The vast majority of people remained at a subsistence level
the age of salutary neglect 1650 1750
The Age of Salutary Neglect (1650-1750)
  • British treatment of the colonies during the period preceding the French and Indian War (AKA the Seven Years’ War) is often described as “salutary neglect” (or “benign neglect”)
  • Although England regulated trade and government in its colonies, it interfered in colonial affairs as little as possible
  • Because of the distance, England occasionally turned its back on the colonies’ violations of trade restrictions.
  • Thus, the colonies developed a large degree of autonomy, which helped fuel revolutionary sentiments when the monarchy later attempted to gain greater control of the New World
  • During this time, the colonies “grew up”, beginnings of American culture, as opposed to transplanted English culture, took root
the age of salutary neglect 1650 1750 english regulation of colonial trade
The Age of Salutary Neglect (1650-1750) – English Regulation of Colonial Trade
  • Throughout the colonial period, most Europeans who thought about economics at all subscribed to a theory called mercantilism.
    • Mercantilists believed that economic power was rooted in a favorable balance of trade (that is, exporting more than you import) and the control of the specie (hard currency, such as gold coins)
  • In order to guarantee a favorable balance of trade, the British government encouraged manufacturing in England and place protective tariffs on imports that might compete with English goods
the age of salutary neglect 1650 1750 english regulation of colonial trade1
The Age of Salutary Neglect (1650-1750) – English Regulation of Colonial Trade
  • The NAVIGATION ACTS – passed between 1651 and 1673
    • Required the colonists to buy goods only from England, to sell certain of their products only to England, and to import any non-English goods via English ports and pay a duty on those imports
  • In short, the Navigation Acts sought to establish wide-ranging English control over colonial commerce
  • While the colonists avoided these acts by smuggling in goods, they did not protest aggressively against them because they were entirely dependent on England for trade and for military protection
major events of the period
Major Events of the Period!!
  • Bacon’s Rebellion
    • Took place on Virginia’s western frontier during 1670s.
    • Sir William Berkeley, the royal governor of Virginia
    • As farmable land to the east filled up, settlers looked to the western portion of the colony. This was dangerous due to the fact that they were encroaching on land already inhabited by Native Americans
    • Pioneers soon came to believe that the colonial government was not making a good-faith effort to protect them
    • The government was using them as a “human shield” to protect the wealthier colonists to the east
    • Rallying behind Nathaniel Bacon, these settlers first attacked the natives (Doegs and Susquehannocks) then turned their attention toward the colonial governor.
    • The rebels marched on Jamestown and burned it to the ground
major events of the period1
Major Events of the Period!!
  • King Philip’s War
    • One of the bloodiest English-Native American conflicts of the time
    • 1670s, Wampanoags, living in Narragansett Bay, Massachusetts, were surrounded by white settlements, and colonists were attempting to blot out Native American life with English culture and religion.
    • The Wampanoags were led by Metacomet (known to the English as King Philip, hence: King Philips War)
    • Metacomet led attacks on several settlements in retaliation for this intrusion on Wampanoag territory.
    • He formed an alliance with two local tribes and destroyed a number of English settlements, but eventually ran out of food and ammunition.
    • When Metacomet died, the alliance fell apart and the colonists devastated the tribes, selling many into slavery in the West Indies
    • King Philips war marks the end of a Native American presence among New England colonists
major events of the period2
Major Events of the Period!!
  • Stono Uprising (Stono Rebellion)
    • First and one of the most successful slave rebellions
    • Sept. 1739, approx. 20 slaves met near the Stono River outside of Charleston SC
    • Stole guns and ammunition, killed storekeepers and planters, liberated a number of slaves
    • Now numbering around 100, the rebels fled to Florida, where they hoped Spanish colonists would grant them their freedom
    • The colonial militia caught up with them and attacked, killing some and capturing most others.
    • Those who were captured and returned were later executed.
    • As a result many colonies passed more restrictive laws to govern the behavior of slaves.
    • Fear of slave rebellions increased
major events of the period3
Major Events of the Period!!
  • Salem Witch Trials, 1692
    • Not the first witch trials in New England. During first 70 years of settlement, 103 people (most women) were tried on charges of witchcraft
    • Never before had so many been accused at once however, as more than 130 “witches” were jailed or executed during the summer of 1692
major events of the period4
Major Events of the Period!!
  • The Great Awakening
    • Generations that followed original settlers were generally less religious than those that preceded them
    • 1730s and 1740s – the colonies (and Europe) experienced a wave of religious revivalism known as The Great Awakening
    • Two men, Congregationalist minister Jonathan Edwards and Methodist preacher George Whitefield, came to exemplify the period
    • Edwards – preached the severe, pre-deterministic doctrines of Calvinism and became famous for his graphic depictions of Hell
      • Primary Source – “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
    • Whitefield – preached a Christianity based on emotionalism and spirituality, which today is most clearly manifested in Southern evangelism.
    • The First Great Awakening is often described as a response of devout people to the Enlightenment
major events of the period5
Major Events of the Period!!
  • The Enlightenment
    • A European intellectual movement that borrowed heavily from ancient philosophy and emphasized rationalism over emotionalism or spirituality
    • It’s effects were also being felt in the colonies
    • Ben Franklin – colonist who came to typify the Enlightenment ideas in America
    • Poor Richards Almanackwas extremely popular and remains influential to this day – “A penny saved is a penny earned”
    • Franklin was a pioneer with electricity, invented bifocals, the lightening rod, and the Franklin stove, and he founded the colonies first fire department, post office, and public library