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CAD/CAM. Design Process and the role of CAD. Design Process. Engineering and manufacturing together form largest single economic activity of western civilization Distinguishing feature of wealthy economies . Design Process. Engineers and designers have turned to machines for assistance

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Cad cam


Design Process and the role of CAD

Design process
Design Process

  • Engineering and manufacturing together form largest single economic activity of western civilization

  • Distinguishing feature of wealthy economies

Design process1
Design Process

  • Engineers and designers have turned to machines for assistance

  • Machines are computers and their task is information processing

Design process2
Design Process

  • Clarification of task

  • Conceptual design

  • Embodiment of design

  • Detail design

Design process3
Design Process

  • Reduction of time for product design and development has led to:

  • Simultaneous engineering or

  • Concurrent engineering

Modeling and communication
Modeling and Communication

  • Models represent a physical artifact before it exists

  • Models vary in construction depending on what component is to be evaluated, manipulated or refined

  • Models can exist as different representations

Modeling and communication1
Modeling and Communication

  • Major role of models is communication between participants of the design process

  • Design is sharing information and models are the means of communicating information

Types of design models
Types of Design Models

  • Dependant on the property to be evaluated or communicated

  • Function

  • Structure

    • How parts are assembled

  • Materials

  • Surface condition

  • Dimensions

Types of design models1
Types of Design Models

  • Engineering is primarily concerned with form and structure

  • Most appropriate method to represent these has been graphical

Types of design models2
Types of Design Models

  • Form design is done with drawings that define shape, and arrangement of component parts of the design

  • Structure of the assembly is concerned with the way these are connected together and with flows (energy or material) between parts; SystemEngineering

Types of design models3
Types of Design Models

  • Target receiver for the communication will determine the technique used to generate the model

  • It is crucial to avoid misinterpretation and ambiguity

  • Design models must conform to agreed standards

Application of design models
Application of Design Models

  • Consider the receiver of communication

  • Two main classifications:

    • Evaluating

      • Actions taken to asses properties or merit

    • Generative

      • Actions that provide information from the model for downstream use (manufacture)

Application of design models1
Application of Design Models

  • Visual assessment to ensure no obvious weak areas

  • Assessment of the mass of the components

  • Evaluation of loads in components

  • Evaluation of stresses using FEA

Traditional design process
Traditional Design Process

  • “Over the wall approach”

  • Communication barriers are as high as the wall

  • Concurrent engineering breaks down barriers enabling more responsive product development and higher product quality

Modeling using cad
Modeling using CAD

  • Design is progressively refined in the abstract until it is completely defined for manufacture or construction

Modeling using cad1
Modeling using CAD

  • Models of the functional and other customer requirements for the design

    • These may change and develop as the design progresses

  • Models of the constraints on the design

    • Available materials or manufacturing capability

Modeling using cad2
Modeling using CAD

  • Models of loads imposed on the design

  • Models used to evaluate the performance of design

    • Stress, thermal analysis, aerodynamic assessment

Objective of cad
Objective of CAD

  • Apply computers to both modeling and communication of designs

  • Basic level use computers to automate or assist in tasks such as drawings, diagrams, parts list, BOM

  • Advanced level provide new techniques to assist designer in the process of design

Cad system architecture
CAD system Architecture

  • Hardware

    • Computer and peripherals

  • Software

    • Programs running on hardware

  • Data

    • Data structure created and manipulated by the software

  • Human knowledge and activities

Secret software data base
Secret Software Data Base

  • Model definition

    • To add geometric elements to a model of the form of a component

  • Model manipulation

    • Move, copy, delete, edit or modify elements in the design model

Secret software data base1
Secret Software Data Base

  • Picture generation

    • To generate images of design model on a screen or hard copy device

  • User interaction

    • Handle commands input by user and present output to user

Secret software data base2
Secret Software Data Base

  • Data base management

    • Process the files that make up the data base

  • Applications

    • Those elements of software that do not modify the model but generate information for evaluation analysis or manufacture


  • Cad provides techniques for developing various ways to model a design

  • Cad can describe a design while it is still an abstract concept and communicating this description throughout the entire process