The Via Spluga: the communication to Europe FROM CHIAVENNA TO ISERLOHN IN THE MIDDLE AGES • WHAT WERE ROADS LIKE? • HOW DID THEY USE TO MOVE? • ITINERARY AND STAGES
WHAT WERE ROADS LIKE? In the Middle Ages, roads were usually made of rocks but there were a lot of paths too, that were especially in the mountains.
HOW DID THEY USE TO MOVE? In the Middle Ages, people used to move on foot for short stretches of road or by wagons pulled by horses for the longer ones.
ITINERARY AND STAGES • Chiavenna • Lucerne • Basel • Freiburg • Strasbourg • Frankfurt • Cologne • Iserlohn
A. Chiavenna Chiavenna is a town of Roman origin. It is at the foot of the Spluga Valley which leads up to the Splügen Pass. The Itineraries demonstrate that the pass was busy in ancient times. In the Middle Ages, Chiavenna was an important centre for communication and the trade of goods. Around the village, there was a wall that protected it from enemy attacks.
B. Lucerne In the Middle Ages, Lucerne was important because of its position by the lake of the same name. People became rich especially with fish trade. It was also an important religious center with a lot of monasteries and Baroque churches.
C. Basel The town of Basel was called Basilea or Basilia in Latin from Ancient Greek (meaning kingship) and this name is documented from 374 AD. In the Middle Ages it was famous because Bishop Heinrich von Thun allowed the furriers to found a guild in 1226. Eventually about 15 guilds were established in the 13th century. They increased the town's, and hence the bishop's, reputation, influence, and income from the taxes and duties on goods in Basel's expanding market.
D. Freiburg In the Middle Ages, Freiburg was important for the production of draperies and metals; first they were produced in small workshops and then in factories for foreign markets too.
E. Strasbourg A major commercial centre, the town came under control of the Holy Roman Empire in 923, through the homage paid by the Duke of Lorraine to German King Henry I. The early history of Strasbourg consists of a long conflict between its bishop and its citizens. A revolution in 1332 resulted in a broad-based city government with participation of the guilds, and Strasbourg declared itself a free republic.
F. Frankfurt Frankfurt was one of the most important cities in the Holy Roman Empire. From 855 the German kings and emperors were elected in Frankfurt and crowned in Aachen. The Frankfurt Trade Fair was first mentioned in 1150. In 1240, Emperor Friedrich II granted an Imperial privilege to its visitors, meaning they would be protected by the Empire.
G. Cologne An ancient tradition in the perfume (cologne). The solid industrial apparatus drew strong currents of immigration. The presence of labor increased the production of goods that were then traded through markets. In 1288 Cologne gained its independence from the archbishops and became a Free City. Besides its economic and political significance Cologne was an important center of medieval pilgrimage. Cologne's location on the river Rhine placed it at the intersection of the major trade routes between east and west and was the basis of Cologne's growth. Cologne was a member of the Hanseatic League in 1475.
H. Iserlohn The first written document mentioning Lon dates only from 1150. In 1237 Iserlohn, in North Rhine-Westphalia was given municipal rights.
PRESENTATION BY: • LAVINIA GUANELLA • FEDERICA BALATTI • SILVIA MARAFFIO Roads Connecting Us – Connections Between Our Countries and Their Implications in the Development of the European Integration Comenius Project 2013/2015 - Chojnice (Poland) 23/28.02.2014