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NACIJA I NACIONALIZAM. Siniša Zrinščak Predavanje 15 Prosinac 2013. Etnički sukobi? Jačaju ili ne? Globalizacija – nacija, etnicitet? Special Eurobarometer 393, „Discrimination in the EU in 2012”:

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nacija i nacionalizam

NACIJA I NACIONALIZAM

Siniša Zrinščak

Predavanje 15

Prosinac 2013.

slide2

Etnički sukobi? Jačaju ili ne? Globalizacija – nacija, etnicitet?

  • Special Eurobarometer 393, „Discrimination in the EU in 2012”:
  • „Of the eight grounds of discrimination examined in the survey, discrimination on grounds of ethnic origin is seen as the most widespread: overall, 56% of Europeans think that it is widespread. 37% consider that it is rare .... It is seen as widespread by at least seven out of ten respondents in France (76%), Cyprus and Sweden (both 75%), and Greece, the Nertherlands, Denmark and Hungary (all 70%). At the other end of the sacel, less than a third of EU citizens living in Lithuania (17%) and Poland and Latvia (both 26%) share this view.“
slide3

Ethnos, ethnicus

  • Horda – rod – pleme – narod – nacija
  • Weber:
  • Etnička skupina – subjektivno vjerovanje u zajedničko podrijetlo
  • Nacija – vjerovanje + zahtjev za političkom moći, posebnost izražena u vl. pol. organizaciji
  • Jezik, kultura...
etnija
Etnija
  • A. Smith
  • Etnija - pojam povezuje moderne nacije s predmodernim oblicima etničkog identiteta i pripadnosti
  • Elementi: Kolektivno vlastito ime; Mit o zajedničkim precima; Zajednička povijesna sjećanja; Elementi zajedničke kulture; Povezanost sa specifičnom domovinom; Osjećaj solidarnosti među stanovništvom
  • Dva tipa:
  • Lateralna (aristokratska)
  • Vertikalna (pučka)
nacija
Nacija
  • Različite definicije
  • F. Meinecke:
  • Kulturne
  • Političke (državne)
  • A. Smith:
  • Zapadni (građansko-teritorijalni) model
  • Istočni (etnički) model
slide6

Dva temeljna shvaćanja nacije

  • 1. Nacija kao zajednica slobodnih i ravnopravnih građana

Renan – subjektivna volja, želja za pripadanjem privrženost...

B. Anderson – Nacija kao zamišljena zajednica

Zamišljena

Ograničena

Suverena

Zajednica

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2. Nacija kao kulturna zajednica

Objektivni elementi – jezik, podrijetlo, kultura

Ideja etniciteta – dominantna

J. Armstrong – nacije kao tvorbe modernog doba, ali duga povijest etničke svijesti

Dva osnovna činitelja (način života i iskustvo) oblikovali dvije vrste identiteta – teritorijalno i geneaološko

slide8

Nacionalni identitet – subjektivna dimenzija etničkih skupina i nacija

Nacionalni identiteti – multikulturalizam – S. Huntington: Tko smo mi?

A.Smith – dva shvaćanja

Teritorijalno-politički – nacija kao zajednica građana, vezan uz državu

Etnički – slijedi iz nacije kao etničke i kulturne zajednice

Funkcije: legitimiranje poretka; socijalizacija

nacionalizam
Nacionalizam
  • Dva shvaćanja
  • Ideologija isključivosti – “mi” i “oni”
  • Oslobođenje nacije, samoodređenje...

Nacionalizam – patriotizam – šovinizam

Dimenzije:

  • Povijesno-politička
  • Filozofsko-antropološka
  • Socijalno-psihološka
  • Evaluativna
slide10

Tipovi nacionalizma:

  • Liberalni
  • Konzervativni
  • Integralni
  • Imperijalistički
  • Antikolonijalni

Globalizacija, nacija, nacionalizam

slide11

Odnos etničkih manjina i većina

  • Asimilacija
  • Lonac za taljenje
  • Kulturni pluralizam
  • Je li “multi-kulti” mrtav?
eurostat 2011 migrants in europe a statistical potrait of the first and second generations
Eurostat (2011) Migrants in Europe. A statistical potrait of the first and second generations
  • „The labour market participation of first-generation migrants compares unfavourably to that of the native-born and nationals. The difference between the two groups results mainly from a considerably lower labour market participation of migrant women, particularly those with at least one child. ....

Migrants also have lower level of income and particularly those from outside the EU have a siginficantly increased risk of poverty or social exclusion, even if they are in employment. This risk is greater in households with children. ....

slide13

In the second generation (native-born persons with one or both parents born abroad), some of these advantages have been reduced or even, in the case of second-generations migrants with a mixed background (one parent born abroad), sometimes reversed. The situation of the second-generation migrants with a foreign background (both parents born abroad), while being more positive than that of first-generations migrants, still shows disadvantages compared to the situation of persons with a native background. ...

  • While the labour market participation of second-generation migrants is often very similar to that of their peers with native background, their risk of unemployment is still higher.“