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MAXIMUM FEASIBLE vs. SELF-HELP CITY Participatory Planning and Outcomes in Inclusive Public Transport Jamie Osborne | jamieo@mit.edu. ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY. Community Organizing Advocacy Planning Participatory Design Capacity and Knowledge Building Consensus Building.

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MAXIMUM FEASIBLE vs. SELF-HELP CITYParticipatory Planning and Outcomes in Inclusive Public TransportJamie Osborne | jamieo@mit.edu
engaging the community
ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY
  • Community Organizing
  • Advocacy Planning
  • Participatory Design
  • Capacity and Knowledge Building
  • Consensus Building
i community organizing
I. COMMUNITY ORGANIZING
  • Organizers help communities to solve their own problems
  • Recognize and assemble power
  • Adversarial and disruptive
  • Innovative tactics = creative empowerment
  • Does not shy away from conflict
  • Strong organizational structure
slide6

Los Angeles

Philadelphia

American Public Transport Association (APTA)

Protests

ii advocacy planning
II. ADVOCACY PLANNING
  • Planners leverage their professional skills to enhance democratic action (1960s)
  • More educational than adversarial roles
  • On the inside as well as on the outside of municipal and regional bodies
  • Federal programs made resources available to groups to hire professional planners to develop plans for those in need
maximum feasible participation
Maximum Feasible Participation
  • The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 promised maximum feasible participation(MFP) of the poor.
  • The poor are able and perhaps better qualified to make judgments on their needs.
  • The participatory process itself as a powerful lesson in self-agency and self-respect.
  • MFP promising, but too vague.
iii participatory design
III. PARTICIPATORY DESIGN
  • Group decision making by collaborations between users and experts
  • Capitalize on tacit (unspoken yet understood) knowledge
  • Puts great faith in the process
  • Process can be challenged by power (and expertise) differences between participants
iv knowledge and capacity building
IV. KNOWLEDGE AND CAPACITY BUILDING
  • Legitimizes the lived experiences and expertise of marginalized groups
  • Encourages self-efficacy
  • Strengthens the potential of building participants’ knowledge by addressing personal capacity:
    • Confidence, enthusiasm, or inherent talents.
  • Especially important for PWDs
    • Skill levels / access to information hindered by structural inequalities, societal attitudes, or built environment.
v consensus building
V. CONSENSUS BUILDING
  • Advanced group deliberation, problem solving, and conflict negotiation.
  • Relies heavily on a skilled neutral facilitator to develop groups of agreements – packages.
  • All stakeholders are representatives from specific organizations
  • Stakeholders seek unanimity, trust process
  • Consensus reached when overwhelming majority of participants “Can live with” a proposal / package
  • How permanent and long lasting is the consensus outside of such a controlled setting?
engaging the community1
ENGAGING THE COMMUNITY
  • Community Organizing
  • Advocacy Planning
  • Participatory Design
  • Capacity and Knowledge Building
  • Consensus Building
just process just outcome
JUST PROCESS = JUST OUTCOME?
  • Does an emphasis on participation provide outcomes that are equitable or just?
  • Meaningful justice may only be obtainable through “Better representation,” not broader participation.
  • How do community engagement techniques recognize conditions outside a stable framework of power.
  • How is justice / effectiveness valued?
practicing participation
PRACTICING PARTICIPATION
  • Multimodal Accessibility Advisory Committee (MAAC)
  • Setting an Agenda
  • Capacity Building / Transit Literacy
  • Imperfect participants / information
  • Finding User Experts / Embodied Auditors
  • Institutional stagnation – Disrupting patterns
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MAAC ?

Ladder of Citizen Participation (1969)

engaging the institution
ENGAGING THE INSTITUTION
  • Power
  • Institutional Hegemony
  • Evolving Professional Roles
  • Who Participates?
  • Rational / Skilled Participants
  • Resource Allocation
  • Shifting Participation Requirements
  • What Outcomes?
participation limits
PARTICIPATION LIMITS
  • Privilege / Valorize “The Local” / Civil Society
  • Subjective Observations / Informal data
  • Raised Expectations / Impossible Commitments
  • Access to Information / Facilitation / Logistics
  • Shared Decision-making / Redistribute Power
  • Engagemement ≠ Involvement or Social Responsibility
questions
QUESTIONS
  • Who benefits from participation?
  • Does larger disability community benefit?
  • What are the possibilities and constraints of community engagement within this institutional structure?
  • What are municipal agency’s responsibilities to empower advisory committees?
  • What are expectations of participants?
more questions
MORE QUESTIONS!
  • What kind of political / economic / social structure?
  • What does empowerment mean?
  • Participation to meet what ends?
  • Do just / equitable outcomes follow?
  • Any outcomes outside of participation?