AS MOD 2 SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT.
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SOCIO-CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL EFFECTS ON PARTICIPATION IN PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON PERFORMANCE
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT
EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES IN THE PARTICIPATION OF PHYSICAL RECREATION AND SPORT
To increase participation in sport and active rec across the population there is a need to target specific groups who are below national average
Who is perceived as the dominant group in society?
White, male middle class section of society (highest participation rates)
- Most access to employment, decision-making and control of major social institutions eg law, education, media, etc
- Traditionally protects its own position eg establishing laws or membership clauses or has discriminatory practices that limit the opportunities of other groups
What is DISCRIMINATION?
To give unfair treatment especially because of prejudice
What does sport do for society?
Its good for people
It contributes to health
Increases educational attainment
It provides enjoyment
Creates a sense of pride in community and country
Helps reduce crime levels
What is SOCIAL EXCLUSION?
When people or areas suffer from a combination of linked problems - unemployment
- poor skills
- low incomes
- unfair discrimination
- poor housing
- high crime
- bad health
- family breakdown
Which targets groups are likely to be affected by social exclusion/discrimination?
Ethnic minority groups
Low socio-economic group
Geographics affects opps/choices
+ or – school experiences
Peer group opinions
+ or - role models
FACTORS AFFECTING PARTICIPATION
YOUR SOCIO-ECONOMIC STATUS
Income and employment
some ethnic groups still hold negative attitudes towards sport
What is the cost (social/community) of SOCIAL EXCLUSION to the individual, taxpayer and economy?
What are the general barriers to participation in sport (Attitude, Access, Programme)?
- Individuals from lower socio-economic groups have poorer health/mortality rates, therefore the health benefits of participation are important
- Values are transferred through generations and can continue to alienate people who’s values are different to the dominant culture
What factors might make this group difficult to MOBILISE (motivate)?
Feelings of inadequacy
Isolation from major social institutions
What is SOCIAL MOBILITY?
Movement of individuals up or down the social class structure
What are Ethnic Groups?
People who have racial, religious, linguistic and/or certain other traits in common
What Ethnic groups can people be classified into?
None of these
The gap between men’s/women’s part is greater amongst ethnic minority groups than it is in the population as a whole
REASONS FOR LOW PARTICIPATION RATES
What reasons are there for low participation rates?
Lack of money
Negative experiences in sport
Running/jogging amongst Black other males/Black Africans
Badminton by Chinese men
Cricket by Pakistani, Black other and Indian
Basketball amongst Black Caribbean/Black Africans
What activities are popular with ethnic minority groups?
- There’s variation in levels of participation between ethnic groups, between men and women and between sports
Give examples of racism in sport?
STACKING disproportionate concentration of ethnic minorities in certain positions in a sports team based on stereotype that they are more valued for their physical skills than decision-making eg black fly halves
CENTRALITY restricts ethnic minority groups from more central positions requiring decision-making and social interaction
LABELLING agents of social control (eg teachers) attach stereotypes to particular groups of people eg having lower educational expectations of black children compared to white, or girls compared to boys on the sports field
CHANNELLING teachers/coaches channel children from ethnic minority groups into certain sports that they feel they are most likely to succeed in
SOLUTIONS TO THE LOWER PARTICIPATION MINORITY RATES FROM ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS
What solutions are there to lower participation rates from Ethnic Minority Groups?
Sport policies that are sensitive/respectful of other cultures eg single sex swimming for Muslim women
Use of policy planning, race relations advisors and customer care
Info should be available about sport provision in a local area
Clubs should be supported but integration not enforced
People from ethnic minorities in local communities trained as sport leaders and SDO’s
Greater media coverage raising awareness of ethnic minority sports and role models
Campaigns to eliminate racism
Can you name a high profile Anti-Racism campaign?
“Kick it Out” in football, from the “Let’s Kick Racism out of Football” campaign, est in 1993 by Commission for Racial Equality and PFA
It was supported/funded by PFA, FA Premier League and the FA
What sports have high female participation?
What are the reasons for lower female participation rates in active recreation?
Social stereotyping society less positive about female sport participation compared to men. Stereotype that females should not be seen to be too competitive, assertive, achievement orientated
Sport traditionally the preserve of males it was est/controlled by men, actively discouraging women
Less media coverage
Traditionally less money/power women generally earn less money, occupy fewer positions of power (esp in sporting institutions)
Sexism Overt eg legislation/club membership
Covert eg society’s more negative attitudes towards female participation
Evidence of inequality in sporting opportunities unequal provision of facilities, less variety of activities eg traditionally football, boxing, rugby.
Fewer female coaches/administrators
What are the solutions to low participation rates?
Equal opportunities NGBs must create/deliver equal opportunity policies following Sex Discrimination Act 1975
WSF est to raise awareness of inequalities in female sporting provision
More facilities for women Women only sessions, effective child-care facilities
Better links between school and clubs Help lower the “post school gap”
Health related activities Women should be aware of all possibilities in their area and the health benefits of sport participation should be promoted
What does the term “sex” mean?
The biological aspect of a person, male or female
What does the term “gender” mean?
Roles that different societies/cultures attribute as appropriate behaviour for that sex
What gender roles do we assign to women in this country?
A dainty/delicate female, physically slim/emotionally vulnerable
What impact does this have on modern day sport?
Sports like tennis/gymnastics receive more social acceptance than sports requiring “masculine” orientated features
Historically sport was always seen as a male preserve as they developed/controlled sports whilst women have had to fight hard to achieve similar opportunities
How has female sports participation increased in the 20th C?
Greater independence via more disposable income
Availability of more sports
Clubs and competitions
Women in positions of responsibility in sport orgs
SEX DISCRIMINATION ACT 1975
A female should be treated in the same way as a male in similar circumstances
What do you think is the biggest factor for female participation in sports?
The growing emphasis placed on health/fitness and the toned/slim stereotypical female form
What is the no.1 sport for women and girls?
What is the major problem holding back the number of girls taking part?
Lack of career prospects
What do you refer to as disability?
People with a PHYSICAL, SENSORY or MENTAL impairment
What are the most popular sports for the young disabled?
Horse riding and swimming
What is it about these sports?
These are sports that tend to organise events specifically of people with disabilities
Participation in other sports alongside non-disabled is low
Have sports been modified for the disabled?
Modified (volleyball or wheelchair basketball)
Specifically designed (goalball for the blind)
What is Goalball?