The Colorado ArmyNational Guard History of the Colorado Guard Sgt. 1st Class David Schmidt JFHQ-CO Public Affairs NCOIC, Cmd. Historian
NATIONAL GUARD:The Oldest Military Institution • 1636 – First Muster (Males 16-60 Obligated to serve) • French Indian Wars – (Rogers Rangers) • Minute Men – (Symbol of the National Guard) • American Revolution (28 NG units fly battle streamers) • War of 1812 (Militia contributed 489,000) • War with Mexico (70% militia forces, first war fought on foreign soil)
Our Story Begins…Colorado becomes a Territory in 1861, a state in 1876 • 1860 - 1st Colorado Military Companies form: Jefferson Rangers and Denver Guards to ensure alignment with the North as Civil War approaches and offer protection to territory from Indians. • 1861 – Gov. Gilpin creates “Colorado Volunteers” The largest % of Civil War battle streamers are carried by units of the Army National Guard
Civil War reaches Colorado! • 1862 – La Glorieta Pass, NM, March 26-28 • Nearly 1500 (mostly Texan) Confederates invade up the Rio Grande and Sante Fe trail hoping to claim Colorado gold and silver mines • Brigham Young vows to join them if they can make it to Utah and, as a team, try to claim western U.S. and California seaboard • 1200 Colorado Volunteers join Union forces and meet the Rebel Army head-on – mostly marching from Denver to Ft. Union (near Sante Fe) in six days (in early spring - up and over Raton Pass) • Forces collide at Pigeon’s Ranch with infantry, cannon & cavalry • Maj. John Chivington, “fighting parson” flanks behind Confederates, finds and destroys supply train after rappelling down cliff face and becomes hero of La Glorieta Pass • Texans flee back home after losing to Union forces • 1864 – Colo. Volunteer Cavalry fights upstart Confederate sympathizers in Missouri and Kansas
Hostile Indians threaten Colorado • March, 1864 – Companies form due to Indian threat • Tensions mount with ruthless slaughter of white settlers near present day Kiowa – mutilated ranchers put “on display” in July heat, downtown Denver • Stories abound of Indians capturing, raping and enslaving whites all over territory • Sept., 1864 – Indian trader meets with Territorial Gov. John Evans and Chivington at capital, tells of Indian plans to join forces with Mexican rebels in spring in ploy to take over Colorado Territory • Evans tells Chivington to only engage hostile Indians • Evans gets no support from Washington still reeling from Civil War – he heads east to secure assistance
Massacre at Sand Creek • November, 1864 – 3rd Colo. Volunteer Cavalry and 600 militiamen engage Black Kettle’s peaceful camp at Sand Creek in retaliation of settler massacres and prevent spring-time rumored war. • Slaughter over 150 Cheyenne & Arapahoe, nearly 100 women and children – Cavalry lose less than a dozen • Chivington’s troops march thru Denver as heroes with war trophies and Indian scalps hanging from saddles • Capt. Wynkoop and hundreds of others refuse to engage in Chivington’s massacre, later testify against him • Gov. Evans, Chivington forced to resign • Indians stiffen resolve against whites, set fire to Colo. plains
Labor Unrest – Miners Strike! Note: by 1884, Colorado National Guard had 984 members Colorado militia tasked with keeping order during strikes and labor disturbances Union vs. Non-Union workers in “wild west towns” such as dynamite incident in town of Independence by Cripple Creek Non-Union backed by Rockefellers, other wealthy families who also financed several Gov’t officials • 1889, 1894 – The “hard times” • 1903-1904 – Colorado City, • Cripple Creek, Telluride, Trinidad • 1910-1914 – Boulder County,Berwind, Walsenberg,La Veta, Ludlow
Miners, Militia Clash at Ludlow • Conditions dangerous, pay below poverty, brutal foremen • April 20, 1914 – Striking coal miners refuse to disperse from tent city setup near Trinidad, workers trying to unionize • Gunfire erupts, fire started and encampment set ablaze • 20 people, shot or burned including 2 women and 11 children hiding in a foxhole, found dead after 2 day-long skirmish • 2 militiamen killed by armed miners • In the end, the strikers failed to obtain their demands, their union did not obtain recognition, and many union workers were replaced by non-union workers.
America Goes to War with Spain“There’ll be a hot time in the old town tonight!” • 1898 – Colorado Guard federalized, helps claim Wake Island en route to Philippines. Another Colo. contingent ships to Cuba. • First to enter city of Manila (“Colorado troops sure are eager for duty!”) • Colorado Army National Guard’s only Medal of Honor recipient, LTC William R. Grove, fights in Luzon, 1899. The National Guard were the first American soldiers to fight in Asia and the first to meet an enemy utilizing classic guerrilla tactics – tactics to be seen again 60 years later.
Colo. Guard called to Mexican Border • National Defense Act of 1916 – Official first use of term National Guard • 1916-1917, Punitive Expedition led by General John J. Pershing – Try to capture Pancho Villa & banditos • Colorado assigned to Douglas, AZ for border duty • First full scale use of mechanized equipment by Army • Federalization extended due to impending war with Germany • Villa never captured, killed by his own people two years later
The War to End All Wars: WWI • 1917 – All Colorado Guard units called to federal service for WWI duty, several battle streamers from France • 1st Colorado Infantry redesignated as 157thInfantry Regiment, attaches to 40th ID • 1918 – 168th FA arrives in France • 1923 – 157th becomes part of the 45th ID after the war Strength of Colorado National Guard drafted into federal service was 198 Officers and 4297 Enlisted. The Expeditionary Force consisted of 43 Divisions, 40% of them NG.
The Inter-War Years • 1921 to 1923 – 157th Regiment federally recognized and part of the newly formed 45th ID, wearing swatstika patch. • 1927 to 1929 – More coal mining troubles near Boulder, mutiny and riot at State Penitentiary at Canon City, Guard chases bank robbers and bandits across state • 1936 to 1937 – Southern Colorado border patrol and massive locust plague • 1939 – 193rd Tank Company formed • Search for Veterans’ Graves across the state, relocated to federal cemeteries
Axis vs. Allies, WWII • 1941 – All Colo. units mobilized • 1943 – 157th (Infantry Reg.) arrives with 45th ID “Thunderbirds” in Africa, soon assigned under Gen. Patton’s 3rd Army • By 1944, 157th fights 511 days, and four beach landings –Sicily*, Salerno, Anzio, Munich • 1945 – Dachau liberated on April 29 • LTC Sparks sticks .45 in face of BG Linden (42nd) refusing to turn over Dachau to him and reporters. Later has to answer to Patton for charges which he tosses in trash. *The 157th took 4223 prisoners in July, 1944 on Sicily. “My orders were to smash through resistance as rapidly as possible to get to Munich.” LTC Felix Sparks, 157th Bn Cdr
Post WWII Years • 1950 to 1955 – 199th Eng Bn , 193rd Tank Bn, 869th, 928th and 947th Med companies activated for Korean Conflict, but never serve. Selected personnel shipped to theatre, Europe and U.S. • 1961 - Berlin Crisis - Following units activated for manpower - no units shipped; 169th Artillery Grp, 140th Signal Bn, 122nd, 928th and 947th Medical Companies • No COARNG units sent to Vietnam.
Massive Flood in Colorado Mountains • 1976 – 144 civilians killed when Big Thompson River floods in Larimer County.Estes Park devastated. • MP’s, Maintenance and Aviation respond to disaster.
Desert Shield / Desert Storm • 1990 to 1991- 1157th and 1158th Trans Dets (first NG unit in country), 193rd MP Bn., 220th MP Co., 217th Med Bn., 928th and 947th Med Companies mobilize for duty in Saudi Arabia. 128th MPAD federalizes to Ft. Irwin. • Over 18,500 patients, prisoners and refugees treated by COARNG Medical units in Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. • Over 25,000 Iraqi prisoners cycled • thru EPW camps w/ COARNG MP’s
Recent State Active Duty • 1992 – Guard assists after tornado hits Limon, CO • 1993 – 1330 Colorado Guardmembers mobilized to support World Youth Day, visit of Pope John Paul II and 250,000 followers (21,000 heat-related injury patients treated). • 1997 – Air Force A-10 crash (Capt. Craig Button) near Vail. Wreckage found by Colorado Aviation pilot from HAATS. • 1997 – Summit of the Eight, Colorado Guard members utilized for transportation and escort duties for World Leaders (incl. President of U.S.).
Recent State Active Duty • 1997 – October Blizzard socks I-25 corridor, 310 Colorado soldiers activated for three days. • 1998 – Cortez manhunt, SF and AVN units assist Law Enforcement in finding three fugitives in southern Colorado and Utah.
Recent State Active Duty • 1999 – 136 COARNG soldiers assist local Law Enforcement with Columbine HS shooting, visit of Vice President. Guard members from 220th MP, 89th TC, 169th FA, and AVN respond.
Recent State Active Duty • Throughout the last decade, CONG has regularly responded to the needs of Colorado with: • Search & Rescue for hunters and hikers • Forest Fire Suppression assistance • Livestock emergency feeding (hay drops) during blizzards • Floods & other natural disasters common to area
Recent State Active Duty • Hurricane Katrina slams into Gulf states, CONG mobilizes/convoys over 600 to assist. Led by the 169th, and consisting mostly of FA and MP soldiers (plus some AVN assets and Public Affairs augmentees), most serve nearly 4 weeks in St. Bernard parish, New Orleans.
Recent Federal Activations • 1995 - Operation Maintain Democracy, 5/19th SF civil support mission in Haiti • 1996 – 104th PAD deploy to Germany/Bosnia • 1999 – 220th MP’s deploy to Hungary/Bosnia • 2000 – 1022nd Med (Air Amb) deploy to Bosnia
War on Terrorism – Post 9/11 • 10/01 – 220th MPs and FA Soldiers from 157th draw duty as part of Operation Noble Eagle guarding Colo. airports • 12/01 – 193rd Space Bn stands up, gets activated • 01/02 – 5/19th Special Forces (Co. B) mobilized, sent to Afghanistan – followed 9 months later by rest of unit • 02/02 – 1/128th, most of 220th and various other COARNG soldiers provide homeland security at Winter Olympics in SLC, Utah
War on Terrorism – Post 9/11 • 12/02 – 220th MPs and C/109 Medical mobilized, sent to Iraq as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom • 12/02 – 3650th Maintenance Co. mobilized in support of Active Duty on Fort Carson • 04/03 – 157th FA soldiers activated as part of homeland defense, this time providing security of Colo. Air Force Bases and sensitive areas such as Pueblo Chemical Depot • 10/03 – TSOD-K to Iraq • 12/03 – 143rd Signal Co. & 1157th FF to Iraq • 04/04 – 1/128th MPAD to Guantanamo Bay, Cuba • 08/05 – 947th Engineers, 2/135th Avn. to Iraq
The Colorado ArmyNational Guard QUESTIONS? QUESTIONS?