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1. FOUNDATIONS (Dualism, Behaviorism, Central-State Materialism) (G. Ryle, ‘Descartes’ Myth’). For Tuesday: H. Putnam, ‘Brains and Behavior’. In Chalmers, pp. 45-54. Topics. 1. Dualism 2. Introspection 3. Category Mistakes 4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior 5. Behaviorism.

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1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

1. FOUNDATIONS

(Dualism, Behaviorism, Central-State Materialism)

(G. Ryle, ‘Descartes’ Myth’)


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

For Tuesday:

H. Putnam, ‘Brains and Behavior’.

In Chalmers, pp. 45-54.


Topics
Topics

1. Dualism

2. Introspection

3. Category Mistakes

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism


Dualism
Dualism

‘Mind and body are different kinds of stuff.’

- vs. there’s only one kind of stuff, physical stuff.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

1. Knowledge of your own existence more certain than knowledge of any material thing.

2. Can conceive separately of body and self, so body and self are separate.

3. Matter is divisible but the self is indivisible.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

We don’t introspect non-physical substance. knowledge of any material thing.

It shimmers,

beyond any knowledge we have.

So it doesn’t explain anything.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Suppose that each soul only lasted for a second, knowledge of any material thing.

but transmitted all its psychological states to the next soul coming up,

and a person has a long series of such souls.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Everything would seem just the way it does now, to you and to the person.

So supposing it’s one soul,

rather than a series,

doesn’t explain anything.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Suppose that at any one time, to the person.

each person’s body had associated with it

a thousand souls, all acting together.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

So when the body speaks, to the person.

there are a thousand souls wanting to say that thing.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Again, everything would seem just the way it does now to the person.

- to you and to the person.

So supposing it’s just one soul doesn’t explain anything.


Topics1
Topics to the person.

1. Dualism✔

2. Introspection

3. Category Mistakes

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Descartes’ Myth to the person.

1. Knowledge of your own existence more certain than knowledge of any material thing.

2. Can conceive separately of body and self, so body and self are separate.

3. Matter is divisible but the self is indivisible.


Introspection
Introspection to the person.

‘Not only can he view and scrutinize a flower through his sense of sight and listen to and discriminate the notes of a bell through his sense of hearing;

‘he can also reflectively or introspectively watch, without any bodily organ of sense, the current episodes of his inner life.’


Introspection1
Introspection to the person.

‘This self-observation is … commonly supposed to be immune from illusion, confusion or doubt.’

- unlike sense-perceptions.


Introspection2
Introspection to the person.

‘On the other side, the person has no direct access of any sort to the events of the inner life of another.’


Introspection3
Introspection to the person.

‘Absolute solitude is on this showing the ineluctable destiny of the soul. Only our bodies can meet.’


Introspection4
Introspection to the person.

Knowledge of one’s own:

emotions (fear, happiness, depression)

sensations (pains - e.g. footballers’ injuries)

thoughts

beliefs (e.g. that X can’t be trusted)

virtues (kindliness, generosity)

temperament (shyness)

- Different possibilities of error in each case.


Introspection5
Introspection to the person.

Knowledge of someone else’s:

emotions

sensations

thoughts

beliefs

virtues

temperament

- a different basis from knowledge of your own?


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

You can be an expert on the mental states of some other person.

You’re a specialist on your own states.

You know about them the same way you know about the mental states of others.


Topics2
Topics person.

1. Dualism✔

2. Introspection✔

3. Category Mistakes

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Watching the operations of someone else’s mind: person.

mental arithmetic vs. working it out on paper.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

mental arithmetic vs. working it out on paper. person.

Suppose we take ‘thinking’ to be ‘manipulating symbols’.

You can do this just as well in public as you can in your head.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

mental arithmetic vs. working it out on paper. person.

You can perform one and the same mental activity publicly as privately.

When you perform the calculation in writing, there isn’t a private calculation that is causing it.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Consider also, calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

‘being angry’

‘being in pain’

etc.


Showing someone the university
Showing someone the University: calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

UC Berkeley photo


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

UC Berkeley photos calculation I’m performing as I do myself.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

But where is the University? calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

www.ghettodriveby.com/dungeon/


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

‘Expecting someone to come for tea at 4 o’clock’ calculation I’m performing as I do myself.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

‘Expecting someone to come for tea at 4 o’clock’ calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

filling the kettle with water

looking out of the window

looking at your watch


Topics3
Topics calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

1. Dualism✔

2. Introspection✔

3. Category Mistakes✔

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Dualism: calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

‘a para-mechanical hypothesis’.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Descartes calculation I’m performing as I do myself.

‘had mistaken the logic of his problem. Instead of asking by what criteria intelligent behavior is actually distinguished from non-intelligent behavior,


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

‘he asked “Given that the principle of mechanical causation does not tell us the difference, what other causal principle will tell it to us?”

‘He realized that the problem was not one of mechanics and assumed it must therefore be one of some counterpart to mechanics.

‘Not unnaturally psychology is often cast for just this role.’


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

The para-mechanical causes were assumed to be known infallibly by each of us, through introspection.

- thus we can never know how to classify one another’s behavior.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Descartes should have asked: infallibly by each of us, through

by what criteria intelligent behavior is actually distinguished from non-intelligent behavior.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

This makes it sound as though: infallibly by each of us, through

psychological terms are just ways of classifying complex behaviors,

not: ways of identifying the causes of behaviors.


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

Behaviorism: infallibly by each of us, through

the view that psychological terms are just ways of classifying complex behaviors.


Topics4
Topics infallibly by each of us, through

1. Dualism✔

2. Introspection✔

3. Category Mistakes✔

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

How are we to explain the meanings of psychological terms? infallibly by each of us, through

We can describe behavior in non-psychological terms.

We can definepsychological concepts in terms of behavior.


Carnap defines psychological terms like this
Carnap defines psychological terms like this: infallibly by each of us, through

‘A is excited’

asserts the existence of:


1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

“that physical structure (micro-structure) of Mr. A’s body (especially of his central nervous system) that is characterized by

a high pulse and rate of breathing,

which, on the application of certain stimuli, may even be made higher, by vehement and factually unsatisfactory answers to questions, by the occurrence of agitated movements on the application of certain stimuli, etc.”



1 foundations dualism behaviorism central state materialism g ryle descartes myth

If Carnap was right, how could you know by introspection whether you were excited?

You’d have better knowledge of whether someone else was excited than you do of whether you are excited yourself.


Topics5
Topics whether you were excited?

1. Dualism✔

2. Introspection✔

3. Category Mistakes✔

4. Mental States not Causes of Behavior

5. Behaviorism