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1450-1750 The World Shrinks. Big Picture. Why did Europe become the dominant power during this time period? b/c they wanted OR technological superiority Why did some of the European nation-states develop vast empires while others did not?. Big Picture.

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1450-1750 The World Shrinks

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big picture
Big Picture
  • Why did Europe become the dominant power during this time period?
    • b/c they wanted OR technological superiority
  • Why did some of the European nation-states develop vast empires while others did not?
big picture3
Big Picture
  • What were some of the differences among the ways in which non-European cultures interacted with Europe?
    • Why?
    • What were the consequences?
    • Why different degrees of interaction?
big picture4
Big Picture
  • How did the global economy change during this time period?
major european developments
Major European Developments
  • Transition out of feudalism
  • Renaissance
    • Humanism
    • Decline in power of Catholic Church
    • Art & Architecture
c c art in the middle ages and the renaissance
Medieval entirely religious

Flat and stiff

Renaissance both religious and secular


C/C Art in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
major european developments7
Major European Developments
  • Gutenberg’s Printing Press
  • Protestant Reformation
    • Martin Luther—1517 95 Thesis
    • John Calvin
    • King Henry VIII
  • Counter Revolution—Council of Trent
    • End investiture
    • Jesuits established
protestant reformation
Protestant Reformation
  • Previous skirmishes were about papal political authority
  • Luther’s was about theological and the pope’s religious role
  • Paved the way for revolutions in politics and science
major european developments9
Major European Developments
  • Scientific Revolution
    • Copernicus
    • Galileo
    • Scientific Method
    • Deism
church defends itself on 2 fronts
Church defends itself on 2 Fronts
  • Both the Protestant Reformation and the Scientific Revolution challenged the absolute authority of the pope.
    • Reformation on religious grounds
    • Scientific on scientific and mathematical grounds
    • Both equally as influential
major european developments11
Major European Developments
  • Enlightenment
    • Role of the mankind in relation to the government
    • Greatly influenced the framers of the US Constitution
    • Challenge divine right
    • Social contract
  • Thomas Hobbes—people were naturally evilneed absolute monarchy as long as benevolent (social contract)
  • John Locke—optimistic view of mankind; born free w/inalienable rights; govt should rule in the interest of people; bad government should be replaced
  • Jean Jacques Rousseau—all men equal and society should represent the general will (majority rule)
  • Montesquieu—separation of powers
  • Voltaire—freedom speech and religious toleration
  • Enlightened despots—Joseph II of Austria, Frederick II of Prussia and the Russians
major european developments14
Major European Developments
  • Exploration & Expansion
    • Prince Henry the Navigator
    • Vasco de Gama
    • Christopher Columbus
    • Treaty of Tordesillas
    • Conquistadors—Cortes and Pizzaro
exploration expansion
Exploration & Expansion
  • Technology required:
    • Sternpost rudder (Chinese)
    • Lateen sails
    • Astrolabe (Arab)
    • Magnetic Compass (Chinese)
    • Three-Masted Caravels
c c expansion in the americas v empire building elsewhere
C/C Expansion in the Americas v. Empire Building Elsewhere
  • Romans, Mongols, Muslims—either allowed existing cultural traditions or converted to their way of doing things
  • America the population was wiped out + moved in a large # of new people
exploration expansion17
Exploration & Expansion
  • Encomienda System—American Feudalism
    • Social hierarchy
      • Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, mulattos
      • viceroys
  • African Slave Trade—Middle Passage
  • Columbian Exchange
demographic shifts
Demographic Shifts
  • Aztecs and Incas wiped out
  • Huge cities were depopulated
  • Europeans moved by the hundreds of thousands
  • Millions of Africans were forced to migrate
  • Middle Class gets rich with trade
commercial revolution
Commercial Revolution
  • Joint stock company
    • Banking & investing
    • Monopoly on a trade good or area
    • Middle class $$
  • Mercantilism
    • Favorable balance of trade
  • Spain
    • Ferdinand & Isabella
    • Philip II—Spanish Inquisition & Armada
  • England
    • Henry VIII—Act of Supremacy
    • Elizabeth—arts
    • James I—English translation of Bible
    • Charles IOliver CromwellCharles II
  • France
    • Huguenots—French Protestants
    • Louis XIV—Versailles; “Sun King”
  • Germany (Holy Roman Empire—sort of)
    • Divided
    • Thirty Years’ War 1618—Protestants vs. Catholics; Peace of Westphalia
ottoman empire
Ottoman Empire
  • 1450-1922
  • 1453 Fall of Constantinople
  • Janissaries—enslaved Christian children and turned them into fighting warriors
  • Main expansion under Selim I
  • Suleiman I (the Maginficent) didn’t focus on war, but on art (Golden Age)
  • Third Rome—Moscow
  • Ivan III declared free of Mongol rule
  • Ivan IV est absolute rule, czar; unite and expand; St. Basils
  • Cossacks—peasants to settle frontiers
  • Time of Troubles
  • Michael Romanov 1613
  • Peter the Great—westernization & military
  • Catherine the Great—increased serfdom & gained westward to the Med Sea
westernization of russia
Westernization of Russia
  • Peter & Catherine are important b/c they positioned Russia for engagement with the rest of the world, esp the West
  • It gained sea access to the West by the Baltic and Black Seas
  • Cultural access to West
  • C/C to China & Japan that repelled the West from their shores; Russia actively engaged
  • Babur claimed descend from Genghis Khan; Muslim; defeated Delhi Sultanate and est Mughal Empire
  • United entire subcontinent
  • Akbar—religious toleration—Golden Age
  • Shah Jahan—Taj Mahal
  • Religious toleration ended & Europeans arrived
    • Est ports in Goa, Bombay & Calcutta
  • Yuan—Mongols
  • Ming
    • Zheng He then isolation
  • Qing from Manchuria
    • Allowed European trade thru ports
    • When felt threatened expelled them; Canton
  • Shoguns still ruled; emperor a figure head
  • 1542 traded with Europe to acquire guns
  • Christian missionaries
  • 1600 Tokugawa Ieyasu est Tokugawa Shogunate (Edo period)—strict rule; took away power from daimyo
  • Caste system (warrior, farmer, artisan, merchant)
  • National Seclusion Act 1635
c c india china japan on european aggression
C/C India, China & Japan on European Aggression
  • Japan reacted most decisively
  • China & India both allowed trade and occupation of ports
  • China began to limit under the Manchus
  • India was less suspecting and will pay dearly
what about the non european culture why was their interaction with the west so varied
What About the Non-European Culture? Why was their interaction with the West so varied?
  • China & Japan highly organized; fewer Europeans there
  • Africa was fragmented, but not interested in running over b/c could trade easily
  • Americas overwhelmed with disease and technology
  • Ottoman Empire was limited b/c avoided overland trade routes
what about the global economy
What about the Global Economy?
  • Sailing diminished need for Asian overland routes
  • Mercantilism required dependence on est of imperialism married economic and political developments
  • Joint-stock companies took major economic motivation out of the hands of government; more people had a stake in trade routes and conquests
  • B/C the benefits of economic prosperity were diffused among a larger group of individuals the govt began to lose grip on control