HADRIAN’S VILLA Date:118-134AD How do we know this?Brick stamps found on site give two phases of construction 118-125 and 125-134AD Area: 1.5 sq km Materials: Brick-faced concrete, covered with stucco Location: Countryside near Tivoli. Built for: The Emperor Hadrian’s personal use
Vale of Tempe (A park / garden) Named after a place in Thessaly, Greece. The Academy (Guestrooms) Named after a district in Athens (associated with philosophy). Canopus (Outdoor pool area with a ‘sun-room’ at the end) Named after an island in the delta of the river Nile in Egypt. Famous for its sanctuary of the god Serapis (god of underworld). The Serapeum / nympaeum at the end of the pool is named after this god. Nympaeum = a man-made grotto (cave) with fountains Piazza D’Oro (a large courtyard / peristyle with a pool in the center, surrounded by gardens and a double colonnade) Named in modern times. Also known as the “Golden Court” because of the many wonderful things found here in ancient times or because of the yellow / golden toned mosaics. Poikile (a long courtyard with a pool in the middle and surrounding portico) Named after the Stoa Poikile (painted porch) a place in the agora (marketplace) in Athens. Associated with philosophy. Portico = a row of columns connected by a vaulted roof to a wall Maritime Theatre (Hadrian’s private rooms) This place was named in modern times because it is a circular island surrounded by a moat and entered by a draw bridge.
The Canopus Canopus: A body of water based on the Nile River in a canal shape between two hills, with a colonnade on three sides. Serapeum: a semicircular area consisting of a dining area with a half ‘pumpkin’ dome and a nymphaeum (water feature) with niches holding statues or fountains.
Piazza D’Oro Pumpkin- domed entrance way Large Octagonal Hall with domed roof and small oculus Nymphaeum Colonnaded Courtyard
Maritime Theatre Baths Colonnaded Walkway Entrance way Dining Room Central Courtyard Drawbridges Bedrooms
The names of parts of the Villa eg. Canopus and Serapeum – taken from places he had visited. Use of materials eg. Egyptian granite in the courtyard of Piazza d’Oro The statues eg. The crocodile next to the Canopus. Egyptian Features
The names of parts of the Villa eg. Poikile – Taken from places he has visited. The use of the Greek architectural order eg. A colonnade of Ionic columns in the Maritime Theatre. Copies of Greek statues eg. Caryatids – adapted from those seen on the Erechtheion on the Acropolis in Athens. Influence from Greek painting on the Mosaics decorating the Villa eg. The Lion Mosaic and The Goat Mosaic. Greek Features
The use of arch and vault. The types of buildings eg. Baths. Brickfaced concrete covered in stucco. Idea of a country residence. The decoration with mosaics. Domes with central holes for light like that of the Pantheon in various shapes eg. Pumpkin dome. Emphasis on curve. Incorporation of water in the architectural plan. Fondness for polychrome mosaics. The number of copies of Greek statues. Roman /Hadrianic Features