Maraj ó Island (Marajoara) 2) Santarem 3) Central Amazon 4) Gavan (Western Venezuela) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Maraj ó Island (Marajoara) 2) Santarem 3) Central Amazon 4) Gavan (Western Venezuela)

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Maraj ó Island (Marajoara) 2) Santarem 3) Central Amazon 4) Gavan (Western Venezuela)

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  1. AMAZON 4 • Marajó Island • (Marajoara) • 2) Santarem • 3) Central Amazon • 4) Gavan • (Western Venezuela) • 5) Acre, Brazil • 6) Lowland Bolivia (Baure) • 7) Upper Xingu River 1 2 3 5 7 6

  2. Rolling Stone, 10/17/07

  3. The “Great Divide” • Traditional view: complex societies emerged in the Andean area and any complex societies (chiefdoms) in Amazon must be the result of diffusion or migration from the Andes Highlands (Andes) Lowlands (Amazon) The two major geographic blocks that cover the majority of South America are the Andes and Amazonia

  4. Manioc, the major Amazonian staple crop (domesticated by 6,000-8,000 BC, based on genetic evidence)

  5. At least 138 crops with some degree of domestication were being cultivated or managed by native Amazonians at the time of European conquest (83 crops native to Amazonia). • 68% of these Amazonian crops are fruit or nut trees or woody perennials (not surprising in Amazon forest). Peach Palm

  6. Landscape domestication and management of non-domesticated plants and animals and incipient or semi-domesticates

  7. Muscovy Duck Currasow (like “wild turkey”) Parrots & Macaws

  8. The Tropical Diaspora Austronesian Arawak Bantu Tupi-Guarani Tupi languages originated in SW Amazonia by 3000-2000 BC Proto-Arawak likely began to diverge c. 2000 BC

  9. The Arawak Diaspora 500 BC 300 BC BC/AD1

  10. Amazonian Barrancoid • Shared ceramic tradition across much of Amazonia, often associated with speakers of Arawak languages, generally dates to ca. 500 BC to AD 1000, but varies from region to region

  11. Northern Amazonia (Saladoid/Barrancoid) Trants, Caribbean c. 500 BC-AD 600 Gaván, Western Orinoquia, c. AD 600-1300

  12. Origin (homeland) By AD 1 Distribution of Tupi-Guarani languages

  13. 1 2 3 Amazonian Polychrome Tradition • Marajoara • Santarém • Central Amazon

  14. Polychrome Tradition • The Amazonian Polychrome Tradition represents a transformation, c. 1000 years ago, of the earlier Barrancoid Tradition ceramic industry by widespread trade of fine ceramics (“wealth” goods) between elites up and down the Amazon

  15. MARAJOARA • Mound-building regional chiefdoms that developed ca. AD 400 until European contact; early example of Amazonian Polychrome Tradition

  16. Caumtins (Marajoara) mound group Elite mounds

  17. Marajoara burial urns

  18. Domestic mounds

  19. ? Elite Mounds (Camutins) Regional Ceramic Traditions

  20. Amazonian Stonehenge (Amapa), ca. AD 1-500

  21. Macapa burial urns, north of the mouth of the Amazon, ca. AD 1500-1600

  22. CENTRAL AMAZON Over 150 archaeological sites located in area (central Amazon) at the confluence of the Negro and Solimões rivers.

  23. Açutuba (“big Port”), central Amazon, ca. 300 BC-AD 1600 Major center with central plaza the size of 4 football fields

  24. Ceramics from Açutuba (Central Amazon, Polychrome Tradition)

  25. Amazonian “black earth” sites - “terra preta” (TP), after ca. AD 1000 Area adjacent to Açutuba plaza

  26. Santarém is a large pre-Columbian center, located within the city limits of modern city of the same name. The core area of the settlement was roughly 100 ha (300 acres) and overall area up to 20 km² (largest Amazonian town). Center of broad network of smaller, Satellite communities.

  27. Santarém ceramics “very great quantities of porcelain ware of various makes … the best that has ever been seen in the world” (Carvajal 1542)

  28. 1 3 2 1) Acre, Brazil; 2) lowland Bolivia; 3) Upper Xingu River

  29. Geoglyphs of Western Amazonia (Acre, Brazil)

  30. Acre, Brazil

  31. Mound linked by causeways in domesticated landscapes of lowland Bolivia

  32. Fish-farming, Baure of eastern lowland Bolivia Raised Agricultural Fields, Bolivian lowlands

  33. Galactic settlement clusters: central plaza settlement, four primary plaza satellites positioned according to cardinal directions, and other small peripheral plaza settlements (about the size of contemporary Upper Xingu villages) These galactic clusters were small, territorial polities (complex societies) in AD 1500

  34. Core area of one galactic cluster (note central settlement X13 and four primary satellites

  35. Ebenezer Howard’s “Garden cities of Tomorrow” (1902) Garden Cities of Yesterday? Galactic Urbanism or “Garden Cities”: precisely designed network of five core settlements and smaller peripheral settlements in territorial polities, with mosaic of occupation areas, agricultural countryside, and managed wetlands, interspersed by patches of forest and separated from other clusters by closed forest zones (green belts)

  36. European Contact • Catastrophic effects of European contact, notably depopulation from Old World diseases, decimated the complex societies of the Amazon floodplains, but also reached throughout the Amazon forest, even though European explorers themselves seldom ventured into many parts of the Amazon until recently

  37. Regional distribution of galactic clusters (polities) in a peer polity system, in other words each polity was politically equal (not single capital center) Note extent of anthropogenic areas (denoted by large orange and red circles): no “pristine forest” here

  38. Areas of Arawak and related polities in AD 1500: 1) Upper Xingu; 2) Pareci; 3) Baure (eastern Bolivia)