“Extra! Extra! Read (blog, wiki, watch...) all about it!” Exploring the changing face of journalism
When YOU were a kid...(circa 1993) When I was a kid...(circa 1978) ?
“We are the children of a technological age. We have found streamlined ways of doing much of our routine work. Printing is no longer the only way of reproducing books. Reading them, however, has not changed...”Lawrence Clark PowellAuthor
1896: Henry Ford created experimental gas-powered automobile • 1906: Kellogg created first cereal company • 1952: televisions were a luxury
1690: Benjamin Harris created 1st newspaper • controversial political topics=shut down after 1st issue • subsequent publications needed a permit
Early Forms of Newspapers • 1704 (14 yrs. later): Continuous publishing began • Heavy European coverage/London news • BUT--it had Blackbeard and the lottery! (6000 @ $2 to build a road in S.C.)
Out with the old... • Opinions were worn out--people wanted news! • Convenient & cheap=best idea ever! • “Extra! Extra! Read all about it!”
Penny Press • 1833: Benjamin Day’s the New York Sun changed the face of news... • $.01 vs. $.06 • accessible to all social classes • more informational AND sensational • first to use advertising for info and funding • became the “cool” thing to buy
What invention allowed war correspondents to transmit stories during the War between the States?
Telegraph=Mass media • Mass media became immediate • wire services were created (Reuters, the Associated Press) • mass media became unreliable (nooo...) • inverted pyramid was born
Inverted Pyramid Most important info Stuff we can live without
Yellow Journalism • Joseph Pulitzer vs. William Randolph Hearst • melodrama, scandal, “Inquirer”-like headlines, comic strips, death, pictures of death, others’ tragedies • Truth was trashed by self-promotion • Freak them out and they will read...
In today’s T.V. dependent society, we thrive on (and oftentimes mock) a softer version of Yellow journalism...
Muckraking • “Enough drama! Grow up!” (unless it’s socially responsible, of course...) • Journalists began to investigate corruption and societal issues: • big business (factories, sweat shops) • social institutions/situations (insane asylums, slums) • politics
Technology Takes Over • Radio: invented 1920’s, in every home by 1940’s • Still the most reliable • encouraged science, questions
Provide level-headed info to naive public What IS the media’s role in this “high tech” society? Social responsibility Alert public of scientific, technological advances Facts, not guesses--objectivity!
? Her face had become a palette of expression. A piece of art twisted, tangled, and marked exactly as society forbade.
Began in 1940’s; everywhere by 1960’s • Vietnam, racism, death, human interest (a.k.a. “others’ harships) • Is there anything good? • Society became cynical, lost trust in American focus, big business (again)...
Modern Day Challenges: • For Reporters • How do you give all sides equal weight? • Are all sides worth telling? • What do you do when one side is just...wrong? • For Newspapers • Local newspapers down from 2200 to 1500 since 1910. • Competition often causes small company mergers. • The internet
Will today’s newspaper get a facelift? • Visual appeal (ex. USA Today) • ePaper • satellite controlled ePapers